|About this Recording
8.110273-74 - BOITO: Mefistofele (de Angelis, Favero, Melandri) (1931)
Arrigo BOITO (1842-1918)
When the introduction of electrical recording in Europe began in the latter half of 1925 the Columbia Graphophone Company started a big push to make new recordings with this system. They began recording in Italy in March 1926 with the new Westrex electrical system and adopted the prefixes WBX for 12-inch and WB for 10-inch matrices. Virtually all of the early recordings were devoted to singers then appearing in Milan, principally at the city’s world famous opera house, the Teatro alla Scala. However, by the latter part of 1928 the British-owned company felt confident to undertake the recording of complete operas. The first three were Verdi’s La Traviata, Aida and Puccini’s La Bohème, all made during November of that year. The initial artistic and commercial success of this enterprise was such that it was decided to continue the series of popular operas over the coming years. The world economic situation following the Wall Street crash in 1929, however, brought about a dramatic downturn in the fortunes of the recording industry. One result of this was the amalgamation of both the Columbia and Gramophone companies in April 1931 to form Electric and Musical Industries, now known as EMI Recorded Music.
Naturally existing commitments had to be honoured, either by making the agreed recordings or by paying off the artists from their contracts. Happily the demand for Italian opera remained relatively buoyant, so that the Italian branch of Columbia recorded Puccini’s Manon Lescaut, Giordano’s Fedora (in abbreviated form), Ponchielli’s La Gioconda and Boito’s Mefistofele during 1931. Then, during 1932, Verdi’s Falstaff and Bizet’s Carmen would be made. After this the series came to an end.
Mefistofele had been performed at La Scala during the 1923-24, 1924-25 and 1927-28 seasons on eight occasions each year but did not re-appear until 1934-35. The opera was presented fairly regularly, however, in other Italian opera houses, so the work was in no way unfamiliar. Nevertheless to record such an opera, especially the very dramatic Prologue must have presented great problems from the technical point of view. The venue regularly used by Columbia was situated in Via San Antonio. An internal EMI report, dated November 1931, stated “the room has proved far from satisfactory as it is too small, and the acoustics are bad”. Its use was discontinued after March 1932.
The protagonist in the title rôle was the bass Nazzareno de Angelis, who was born in Rome in 1881 and died there in 1962. As a boy he had sung in the Choir of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. His début took place in 1903 and his career continued until 1939 when he retired. He was one of the most distinguished Italian basses of his era and was particularly admired for his portrayal of Mefistofele, a rôle he sang over five hundred times between 1906 and 1938. He had a repertoire of 57 rôles and made over 1500 appearances. Other than singing in Chicago during the years 1910-11 and 1915-20, de Angelis’s career was based in Europe. He was also admired as Rossini’s Mosè and in the principal Verdi and Wagner rôles. His recording of Mefistofele was his sole complete recording, although he recorded a considerable number of arias for both Fonotipia and Columbia.
Antonio Melandri (1891-?) was born in Bologna and first studied oboe at the city’s conservatorio. Discovering his voice in his late twenties, he made his début in Novara in 1924. Melandri’s Scala début was as Calaf in Puccini’s Turandot in 1926 and the following year he sang in Buenos Aires. In addition to appearances in Holland in 1937-38, Melandri also sang in Germany, Belgium, and Switzerland and throughout Italy. His other recordings included Cavalleria Rusticana and abridged versions of Ernani and Fedora.
The soprano Mafalda Favero (1903-1981) studied in Bologna and made her début at Cremona in 1926 under the name of Maria Bianchi. Her second début using the name Favero was as Liù in Turandot in Parma the following year. Success was swift so that she appeared at La Scala in 1928, remaining there until 1943 and returning once again during the years 1946-50. Favero sang the rôles of Liù, Norina in Don Pasquale and Zerlina in Don Giovanni at Covent Garden in the 1937 and 1939 seasons. Her American début was in 1938 in San Francisco, with two performances of Mimì in La Bohème at the Metropolitan in New York. Considered an attractive singer with a vibrant and appealing style, Favero was greatly admired as Manon, Thaïs, Adriana Lecouvreur and Zazà. She also took part in the premières of Il Campiello (1936) and La dama boba (1939), both by Wolf-Ferrari.
Giannina Arangi-Lombardi (1891-1951) studied in her native Naples before first appearing as a mezzo-soprano. The singer’s first appearance as a soprano took place at La Scala in 1924 where she would perform regularly until 1930. Her rôles there included Santuzza, Aida, La Gioconda, Leonora in Il Trovatore and Donna Anna in Don Giovanni, the last also sung at the Salzburg Festival in 1935. Her sole American season was in Buenos Aires in 1926. Although Arangi-Lombardi possessed a large and beautiful voice, it was thought that she lacked dramatic fire in her singing. After retiring she taught first in Milan (1938-47) and then in Ankara until shortly before her death.
Giuseppe Nessi (1889-1961) studied at the Bergamo Conservatorio before making his début at Saluzzo in 1910. After a short career as a lyric tenor, he began to specialise in comprimario rôles and became one of the leading Italian exponents of his generation. Nessi sang at La Scala from 1921 for 38 years, creating there the rôle of Pong in Turandot in 1926 and Gobrias in Boito’s Nerone. He appeared at Covent Garden in the 1927-29, 1931 and 1937 seasons, returning with La Scala Company in 1950. Nessi’s farewell performance was as Pinellio in Gianni Schicchi in 1959 in his seventieth year. He was a fine actor with considerable stage personality.
Emilio Venturini (1878-1952) was another lyric tenor who changed to comprimario parts after his début in 1900. After appearances in Paris (1905), Covent Garden (1907), and Chicago (1910-17) he joined
La Scala in 1921, remaining until 1948. Like Giuseppe Nessi he was also a fine actor with a keen knowledge of singing and singers.
The facts surrounding the career of the conductor Lorenzo Molajoli are obscure. He was born in Rome in 1868 and studied there at the Accademia di Santa Cecilia. His career began in 1891 and it would appear that much of his career prior to the First World War was spent in both North and South America, South Africa and various provincial Italian opera houses. Claims have been made that Molajoli conducted at La Scala in the inter-war years but there is no published documentation to substantiate this assumption. What can be established is that he served with considerable distinction as the house conductor in Milan for Columbia, accompanying a large number of singers in addition to making recordings of a number of operatic overtures. Molajoli conducted twenty complete or abridged operas for Columbia between 1928 and 1932, a number of which have already been released on Naxos. He died in Milan on 4th April 1939.
Prologue in Heaven
 In the Prelude trumpets are heard off-stage.
 An invisible mystical chorus of angels is heard, through the clouds and mist.
 Mephistopheles is seen, addressing the angels, excusing his appearance and declaring the folly of mankind.
 In a dramatic interlude the angels ask if he knows Faust. Mephistopheles certainly is aware of Faust’s insatiable search for knowledge and proposes a wager that he can lure him into his power.
 A chorus of cherubims sings a vocal scherzo, flying in joy to Heaven, but dreaded by Mephistopheles.
 In a final psalm a chorus of penitents sings a Salve Regina and Ave Maria, unseen and joined in song by the cherubim.
Scene 1: Easter Sunday
 The scene opens by the city gates and ramparts of Frankfurt. Bells ring out for Easter. Students, citizens and huntsmen take their ways, girls pass by, singing. Town criers appear with a proclamation, heralded by trumpets, while on the other side a quack-doctor is seen. Men gather round a beer-seller, while a grey friar passes by. There is a procession of knights, led by the Elector, followed by his court ladies, pages and attendants.
 Faust and Wagner observe the scene. Wagner has reservations about what he sees, walking with his master.
 A crowd of peasants dance in celebration of the festival.
 Dusk draws on, and Faust suggests that they sit and admire the scene. For Wagner evening is a time for ghosts. The grey friar is seen again and turns towards Faust, approaching and seeming to leave a track of fire, as he circles round. They go out, followed by the friar, while the distant sound of the celebration is heard.
Scene 2: The Pact
 The scene is Faust’s study. Distant voices are heard, as Faust comes in, followed by the friar, who hides in the study alcove. Faust sees good in his love for mankind, intending meditation on sacred texts. He puts a book on the lectern, but is interrupted by a loud cry, as the friar comes out of the alcove, greeted by Faust. The friar throws off his disguise, revealing himself as Mephistopheles, dressed as a knight and carrying a black cloak. Faust seeks to know the identity of his visitor.
 Mephistopheles declares himself the spirit that denies everything, his aim universal ruin.
 Faust sees him as the son of Chaos, and Mephistopheles proposes a bargain: he will serve Faust in every way, until their positions are reversed below.
 Faust consents, in return for one hour in which he may satisfy his desire by seizing the fleeting moment. Now Mephistopheles promises to obey.
 Mephistopheles will lead Faust on his new course that very night.
Scene 1: The Garden
 Faust, now under the name of Enrico, Margherita, Mephistopheles and Martha walk in couples in a country garden. Margherita asks Faust to tell her why he loves her, while Mephistopheles makes overtures to Martha.
 Margherita asks Faust if he believes in religion. Faust’s reply stresses his love for her. He gives her a phial, a sleeping draught for her mother, so that they may be together in secret.
 The two couples, Martha and Mephistopheles in a whisper, express their supposed feelings, and all is of love, as the scene ends.
Scene 2: Walpurgis Night
 The scene is a wild and lonely place in the valley of the Schirk, by the hill of the witches. The moon is rising. On one side is a cavern, and on the other the peak of Rosstrappe is seen. The wind blows, as Mephistopheles helps Faust to climb ever higher up the devil’s mountain.
 Flames appear and one of them seems to lead them on, guiding them ever higher. They reach a peak and hear the sound of witches approaching from below. They draw near and Mephistopheles calls on them to bow down before their king.
 He calls impatiently for his sceptre and robe, and, donning the latter, proclaims his ambition to dominate the world. The witches circle round a cauldron and offer Mephistopheles what he wants.
 In the Ballad of the World Mephistopheles, holding a glass orb in his hand, sings of his power over the world, in all its wickedness, laughing at the human predicament. He dashes the glass orb to the ground, and the witches celebrate the shattering of the world.
 Faust seems to see a girl, pale and in chains, his Margherita. Mephistopheles tells him it is only a dream, but Faust still sees her tears and the mark on her neck. The witches continue their celebration in a round dance and fugue.
The Death of Margherita
 The scene is a prison. Margherita is lying on a heap of straw, distracted and singing. It is night and there is a lighted lamp against the wall. At the back is a grating. She sings of the drowning of her baby, which they say was her doing. Her soul seems to fly, as she calls for pity. Her mother had died, and she was accused of killing her. Faust, outside, asks Mephistopheles to save her, and the latter, with some reluctance, gives him the key.
[2\ Faust enters the prison, and Margherita calls on him to help her, remembering, in her delusion, their first meetings. She tells him that she has murdered her mother and drowned her baby, and he must dig graves for them and for her. He urges her to fly with him.
 They embrace, imagining the distant haven to which they will escape together.
 Mephistopheles appears, announcing the dawn and her coming execution. Margherita recognises Satan and prays to be saved from him. Mephistopheles moves to look at the grating, while Margherita lies fainting in the arms of Faust.
 She prepares to meet her death, praying to Heaven and the angels, and rejecting Faust, who leaves with Mephistopheles, while the executioner approaches.
The Night of the Classical Sabbath
 The scene is set in the vale of Tempe. There are limpid streams and thickets of laurel and oleander, lit by the light of the moon. Helen and Pantalis call on the sirens and nymphs to sing to them. Faust calls out to Helen.
 Mephistopheles declares this the night of the classical Sabbath. Faust, entranced, goes out, while Mephistopheles too seems under the spell of the place, so unlike his familiar Harz mountains, with their witches.
 He leaves, as dancers enter, praising Helen.
 Helen, however, recalls the horrors of the fall of Troy. Faust enters, dressed as a knight of the fifteenth century. He kneels to Helen, protesting his love, observed by fauns and sirens, and by Mephistopheles, in some wonder at the sight.
The Death of Faust
 The scene is again Faust’s study, now marked by the passing of time. There are voices in the air, as Faust meditates, sitting in his chair. Behind him stands Mephistopheles. It is night and the book stands, as before, on the lectern. Mephistopheles urges Faust on his journey, as death draws near. Faust has experienced real and ideal love, but the real was sorrow and the ideal a mere dream.
 He wishes only for the good of humanity, the happiness of mankind, and Heaven, as he journeys towards life’s end.
 Mephistopheles seeks to exert his power, but Faust seems to hear the celestial choir. The tempter does his utmost, but Faust falls, leaning on the sacred volume before him, as the heavenly vision appears to him. Mephistopheles finally sinks down, under the flowers scattered by the celestial beings, as Heaven finally prevails.
This recording of Boito’s Mefistofele, the only one to appear during the 78rpm era, was originally released by Italian Columbia in 1932 and three years later by Columbia’s American counterpart. I began to work on this project using three sets of Italian pressings and four sets pressed in America which I carefully compared. I soon found that although the American discs played with less surface noise than those pressed in Italy, the sound was so distorted as to render them totally useless. Apparently, the American sets were all pressed from defective metal stampers. This defect also mars the American Columbia pressings of Il trovatore and Andrea Chenier. This transfer had to be made, therefore, exclusively from the somewhat noisier Italian Columbia pressings. The original recording was made in a studio with no acoustic ambiance. Therefore, I have taken the liberty of adding a slight amount of artificial digital reverberation in order to give the voices a sense of space and to soften the effects of the often too close microphone placement. I have, likewise, added reverberation to the group of De Angelis solo recordings at the end of CD two.
In 1997 Ward Marston was nominated for the Best Historical Album Grammy Award for his production work on BMG’s Fritz Kreisler collection. According to the Chicago Tribune, Marston’s name is ‘synonymous with tender loving care to collectors of historical CDs’. Opera News calls his work ‘revelatory’, and Fanfare deems him ‘miraculous’. In 1996 Ward Marston received the Gramophone award for Historical Vocal Recording of the Year, honouring his production and engineering work on Romophone’s complete recordings of Lucrezia Bori. He also served as re-recording engineer for the Franklin Mint’s Arturo Toscanini issue and BMG’s Sergey Rachmaninov recordings, both winners of the Best Historical Album Grammy.
Born blind in 1952, Ward Marston has amassed tens of thousands of opera classical records over the past four decades. Following a stint in radio while a student at Williams College, he became well-known as a reissue producer in 1979, when he restored the earliest known stereo recording made by the Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1932.
In the past, Ward Marston has produced records for a number of major and specialist record companies. Now he is bringing his distinctive sonic vision to bear on works released on the Naxos Historical label. Ultimately his goal is to make the music he remasters sound as natural as possible and true to life by ‘lifting the voices’ off his old 78 rpm recordings. His aim is to promote the importance of preserving old recordings and make available the works of great musicians who need to be heard.
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