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8.223247 - STRAUSS II, J.: Edition - Vol. 47
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The Johann Strauss Edition

Edition; Volume 47

Johann Strauss II, the most famous and enduringly successful of 19th-century light music composers, was born in Vienna on 25 October 1825. Building upon the firm musical foundations laid by his father, Johann Strauss I (1804-1849) and Joseph Lanner (1801-1843), the younger Johann (along with his brothers, Joseph and Eduard) achieved so high a development of the classical Viennese waltz that it became as much a feature of the concert hall as of the ballroom. For more than half a century Johann II captivated not only Vienna but also the whole of Europe and America with his abundantly tuneful waltzes, polkas, quadrilles and marches. The thrice-married 'Waltz King' later turned his attention to the composition of operetta, and completed 16 stage works besides more than 500 orchestral compositions - including the most famous of all waltzes, The Blue Danube (1867). Johann Strauss II died in Vienna on 3 June 1899.

The Marco Polo Strauss Edition is a milestone in recording history, presenting, for the first time ever, the entire orchestral output of the 'Waltz King'. Despite their supremely high standard of musical invention, the majority of the compositions have never before been commercially recorded and have been painstakingly assembled from archives around the world. All performances featured in this series are complete and, wherever possible, the works are played in their original instrumentation as conceived by the ¡¥master orchestrator¡¦ himself, Johann Strauss II.

[1]   EINZUGSMARSCH AUS "DER ZIGEUNERBARON"

       (Entrance March from 'The Gypsy Baron')

On 24 October 1885 the curtain rose on the world première of Johann Strauss's tenth operetta, Der Zigeunerbaron (The Gypsy Baron). The reporter for the Fremden-Blatt (25.10.1885) recognised the entire evening as "a great triumph for the composer", and the packed house applauded jubilantly throughout the performance.

Among the many musical and visual highlights which so enchanted the first night audience at the Theater an del Wien more than one hundred years ago was the spectacle, towards the close of Act 2, of Hussars and enlisted Hungarian soldiers setting off together to join in the war against Spain. (This is, in fact, one of the few historical inaccuracies in the operetta, for during the Austrian War of Succession, 1740-48. Imperial troops never set foot in Spain.) Act 3 takes place two years later: the war is over and the victorious Hungarian troops are given an heroic welcome as they enter Vienna to the accompaniment of Strauss's spirited and rhythmic choral entrance march, "Hurrah die Schlacht mitgemacht hab'n wir im fernen Land" ('Hurrah, we have taken part in the battle in a distant land').

With his score for Der Zigeunerbaron, Johann Strauss scaled fresh artistic heights from which, as the critic for the influential Die Presse (25.10.1885) noted, "there remains only a short step to opera". Yet, for a composer who lacked intuitive dramatic instinct and thus never fully became a man of the theatre, Strauss showed an uncharacteristic concern for theatrical detail in his dealings with the Zigeunerbaron librettist, Ignaz Schnitzel (1839-1921) - and never more so than with his 'vision' for the final Act of this operetta. During summer 1885 Johann interrupted work on Der Zigeunerbaron with a trip to Berlin to conduct jubilee performances of his operettas Die Fledermaus (1874), Der lustige Krieg (The Merry War, 1881) and Eine Nacht in Venedig (A Night in Venice, 1883). Before returning to Vienna to work on the final preparations for the première of Der Zigeunerbaron at the Theater an del Wien, Johann wrote to Schnitzel from Berlin on 12/13 September 1885: "The entrance march must be imposing. About 80-200 soldiers (on foot, on horseback), camp followers (in Spanish, Hungarian and Viennese dress), common-folk, children with shrubs and flowers - which latter they scatter before the returning soldiers, etc. etc., must appear; the stage opened right back to the Papageno-Tor [an architectural feature of the Theater an der Wien] - it must be a scene which is much, much more splendid than it was in 'Feldprediger' [Carl Millöcker's 1884 operetta of this name] - since this time we want to imagine an Austrian army & people in a joyful mood because of a victory they have won!".

Johann Strauss himself conducted the première of Der Zigeunerbaron on 24 October 1885, and thus also presided over the first performance of the Act 3 (No. 17) Einzugsmarsch in its original choral setting. Six weeks later, the composer's brother Eduard conducted the Strauss Orchestra in the first concert performance of this stirring piece, arranged for orchestra alone, when it opened the second half of Eduard's Sunday afternoon concert in the Golden Hall of the Musikverein on 6 December 1885. Members of the enraptured audience were able to buy copies of the Einzugsmarsch when the piano score of the work went on sale from C.A. Spina's Vienna publishing house on 12 December 1885.

[2] FAREWELL TO AMERICA. WALTZ o. op

In the immediate wake of Johann Strauss's sole visit to the United States of America in summer 1872, when he conducted on numerous occasions in Boston and New York, no less than seven publishers issued waltzes purportedly written by Vienna's Waltz King. Only two from the total of nine compositions published are known to have been performed by Strauss during his American trip - the Jubilee Waltz and the Manhattan Waltzes. It is a matter for conjecture whether the remaining works published were written by Strauss in America, or completed by him after his return to Vienna and submitted by post. A third possibility is that some of the publications had nothing to do with Strauss himself, but were compiled by opportunistic publishers anxious to benefit from Johann's visit and the attendant clamour for new Strauss music.

Farewell to America, unlike its companion piece Greeting to America, is a pastiche waltz comprising melodies from previously published works by the Waltz King. Common to both works is a quotation from J. Stafford Smith's The Star-Spangled Banner - in Greeting to America it appears in the Introduction while in Farewell to America it features as a pianissimo statement in the Coda. The thematic material used for Farewell to America is drawn from the following published Strauss waltzes:

Introduction   -

Introduction to Carnevals-Botschafter op. 270

Waltz 1A       -

theme 1A from Wiener Punschlieder op. 131

Waltz 1B       -

theme 1B from Spiralen op. 209

Waltz 2A       -

theme 2A from Gedankenflug op. 215

Waltz 2B       -

theme 2B from Gedankenflug op. 215

Waltz 3A       -

theme 1A from Controversen op. 191

Waltz 3B       -

theme 4B from Controversen op. 191

Waltz 4A       -

theme 5A from Promotionen op. 221

Waltz 4B       -

theme 2B from Petitionen op. 153 (Josef Strauss)

Coda            -

15 bars from Coda section of Feuilleton op. 293 - theme 1A from Wiener Punschlieder op. 131 - 24 bar Andante quotation from The Star-Spangled Banner (music: J. Stafford Smith) - final 15 bars from Coda of Carnevals-Botschafter, extended to 17 bars by insertion of 2 separate bars' rest

The presence of a waltz theme by Josef Strauss (Waltz 4B) may possibly indicate that Farewell to America was compiled, not by Strauss himself, but by a house arranger for the publisher, Oliver Ditson. This possibility is given greater credence by the fact that many Strauss family compositions published outside Vienna merely credited authorship to "J.Strauss". An arranger unfamiliar with the Strauss catalogue of works might well have assumed that 'J.Strauss' was the famous Johann, rather than his younger brother. It is worthy of note that not one of the waltzes comprising Farewell to America is known to have featured in any of Johann's programmes in Boston or New York in 1872, and all date from the period 1853 to 1864. Especially interesting is the fact that the publisher, Oliver Ditson, who was one of the principal backers of the Boston Jubilee, was also the publisher of Dwight's Journal, a periodical which regularly denounced the festival as "humbug".

The first piano edition of Farewell to America was registered with the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington in 1872 by the publishers, Oliver Ditson & Company of Boston. Since no orchestral material seems to have been published - at least, none has been found - this present recording features a reconstruction by the American conductor and composer Jerome D. Cohen, based on Ditson's piano edition of the waltz and on the original published sets of orchestral parts for the individual waltzes comprising it. In this form, Farewell to America was first performed by the Plymouth Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Rudolph Schlegel, at the Memorial Hall, Plymouth, Massachusetts on 1 April 1989.

Johann and his wife, Jetty, prepared to bid 'Farewell to America' on 13 July 1872, bound for Bremerhaven, Baden-Baden and, eventually, Vienna. As they waited for the Nord-Deutsch Lloyd steamship Donau to depart, Johann spoke to a journalist for the New York Times. The interview, published under the heading "Departure of Johann Strauss for Europe", appeared in the paper the following day and read, in part: "Mr Strauss said that he bade farewell to the people of the United States with the kindest feelings. He should always remember this country with delight, especially the city of New York, of which he spoke very enthusiastically, calling it a 'second Paris'. He expressed a desire to once again publicly thank the press in general for the courtesy and goodwill it had invariably extended toward him since his advent at the Boston Jubilee".

[3] ROMANZE AUS "FAUST" (Romance from "Faust")

In the archives of Austrian Radio (Österreichischer Rundfunk) and in the music collection of the Austrian National Library (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek) there exist two versions of a Faust-Romanze. Both scores bear the heading (in translation): "Romance from Faust arranged by Joh. Strauss", but are the work of different contemporary copyists. The two scores differ from each other only minimally, and present an almost note-for-note transcription for flügelhorn solo and orchestra of Siebel's Romance, "Si le bonheur à sourire t'invite" ('If happiness invites you to smile'), from Act 4 of the opera Faust by Charles Gounod (1818-93). The aria (No. 20) comes in the first scene of this act: Marguerite, betrayed and deserted by Faust, is in her room. Siébel, a village youth who also loves Marguerite, remains true to her and offers her his love in the Romance.

Gounod's five-act opera Faust triumphed at its world premiere on 19 March 1859 at the Théâtre-Lyrique in Paris, and productions followed in other countries. Under the title Margarethe (to avoid confusion with already established Faust theatre pieces by Ignaz von Seyfried and Louis Spohr), the first Viennese performance was mounted at the k.k. Hof-Operntheater (k.k. Hoftheater nächst dem Kärtnertor) on 8 February 1862. Her Majesty's Theatre, London, staged the opera on 11 June 1863, while St Petersburg first saw Gounod's masterpiece (in Italian) in January 1864.

It may have been as a result of this production of Gounod's opera in St Petersburg that Johann Strauss's concert programmes at Pavlovsk during his 1864 summer season featured a number of pieces based on music from Faust. Apart from his own Faust-Quadrille (also featured on this Marco Polo CD), Johann delighted his Russian audiences with a "Potpourri aus Faust", a "Walzer aus Faust" and a "Romanze aus Faust". Indeed, on 1 June 1864 (= 20 May, Russian calendar) the audience at Pavlovsk's Vauxhall Pavilion was treated to a performance of all three works. Pavlovsk audiences first heard Johann's arrangement of the Romanze aus Faust at his concert on 25 May 1864 (= 13 May), and the work was performed a further 21 times (including encores) during that season. (This compares with 24 performances achieved by the Walzer aus Faust and 33 by the Potpourri aus Faust.)

The Romanze aus Faust is a particularly interesting concert piece. Contemporary press reports make it clear that Siébel's aria had been heard at the first Viennese performance of Gounod's opera, but over the decade following the 1859 world première of the work the French composer was to alter and embellish his original score. One of the casualties of his revisions was the removal of Siebel's "Si le bonheur à sourire t'invite", and even today this number is often omitted from productions of the opera. For this reason, Johann Strauss's arrangement of this Romanze aus Faust is a valuable addition to the list of performing material he placed at the disposal of the Strauss Orchestra. Suggestions that Strauss made his arrangement of the Romanze immediately after the first Viennese production of Gounod's opera (1862) seem without basis. Not only are such claims unsubstantiated by the Viennese press, but in view of the predilection of Russian audiences for musical romances, had the arrangement existed in early 1862 it ought to have featured on the programmes of Johann's 1862 and 1863 Pavlovsk seasons. As it did not, it seems likely that the first Russian performance on 25 May 1864 (= 13 May) was also the world première of the piece.

The existence of the two scores of the Romanze aus Faust in the collections of Austrian Radio and the National Library is indeed fortuitous, for the arrangement does not appear in the catalogue of the Strauss Orchestra's archive which Eduard Strauss prepared after his retirement in 1901. Had the work been in the Orchestra's archive (as was the material for several pieces from Gounod's opera), it would certainly have perished when Eduard burned the entire musical archive in 1907.

This present recording of the Romanze aus Faust utilises orchestral parts prepared by Christian Pollack from the manuscript score copy preserved in the Austrian Radio archives.

[4]   KAISER-ALEXANDER-HULDIGUNGS-MARSCH

       (Tsar Alexander Homage March) [op. 290]

Among the issues for debate facing the reigning monarchs of the German states who attended the 'Fürstentag' (Conclave of Princes) at Frankfurt in 1863 was the national-liberal insurrection in Russian Poland, which had broken out in Warsaw on 22 January 1863. The uprising, an act of defiance against Russian rule, swiftly spread throughout Poland, reaching a peak during March 1863. Somewhat perversely, the initial patriotic street demonstrations followed in the wake of a relaxation in the severity of Russian rule in Poland by the 'Tsar Liberator' Alexander II (1818-81). The rebel forces had no organised troops of their own, and when the anticipated help of France failed to materialise the resistance crumbled into a hopeless partisan campaign. Nonetheless, the Tsar's army experienced a great deal of trouble in restoring some kind of peace to Poland, at the same time being under threat of Western intervention on behalf of the Poles. There were numerous excesses and atrocities, and Britain, France and Austria lodged official protests at St Petersburg. Where matters of Polish affairs were concerned, the majority of the German states were anti-Russian: only Prussia showed its support for Russia. Almost a year was to pass before Polish resistance was finally quelled.

The summer of 1864 found Johann Strauss once more in Russia, this time to conduct his ninth season of concerts at Pavlovsk. Mindful of the political and military events in Poland during the previous year, he elected - at his own expense - to organise a music festival at the Pavlovsk Vauxhall Pavilion on 6 August 1864 (= 25 July, Russian calendar). While the programme records of the (Russian) Strauss Orchestra's viola-player, F.A. Zimmermann, state that the concert was held "for the benefit of the invalids" from the warfare in Poland, the St Petersburger Zeitung (5 August / 24 July 1864) praised Strauss for donating the proceeds from his forthcoming benefit concert to "the widows and orphans of those who fell in the latest hostilities". The German-language Russian newspaper continued: "Herr Strauss has, we hear, been granted permission to make use of the entire regimental corps of musicians of the Guards for the proposed monster concert, and to invite all the officers in the encampment to this musical festival. The musical director of the Guard [Kapellmeister Dörfeldt] will, on this occasion, conduct an orchestra of 300 military musicians and, together with the orchestra of Herr Strauss, will perform several pieces of music. If we add, finally, that Fräulein Michailowski of the Russian Opera [at St Petersburg] will perform several songs and Herr Strauss has composed for the festive evening a special military march, which will be played by the combined orchestras, we can doubtless justifiably expect that Herr Strauss's benefit will offer the public something brilliant and seldom heard".

The "special military march" which Johann Strauss composed for his benefit concert appeared as the ninth item on the programme. Entitled Kaiser-Alexander-Huldigungs-Marsch, the carefree piece proved an immediate success and had to be repeated twice. The march was not the only one of the Viennese composer's works receiving its première at the benefit concert on 6 August 1864 (= 25 July), for Johann took the opportunity to conduct the first performance of his potpourri Hommage au public russe (Volume 42 of this CD series). Both compositions duly appeared in print from the St Petersburg publisher, A. Büttner, although neither saw publication in Vienna. The Kaiser-Alexander-Huldigungs Marsch, bearing the opus number 290 and Johann's "most respectful" dedication "To his Majesty the Tsar Alexander II, Tsar of all the Russias etc. etc.", met with such success that Büttner was obliged to run to several printings of the piece. In return for Strauss's dedication of the march, the Tsar responded by bestowing upon the composer the Knight's Cross of the Order of Stanislaus, which Strauss received in 1865. In addition, the Governor of St Petersburg recognised not only the musical dedication to Tsar Alexander but also Strauss's humanitarian efforts in organising the benefit concert, and on 23 October 1864 (= 11 October) honoured him with a "gold medal inscribed 'for zeal', to be worn around the neck on the Alexander Ribbon".

Not only was the Kaiser-Alexander-Huldigungs-Marsch not published in Vienna, but it was also never performed there. It may well be that Strauss felt insufficiently certain of the Austrian public's reaction to his tribute to a Russian monarch responsible for overseeing the suppression of Polish 'freedom fighters'. But, then again, Strauss had always shown himself remarkably adept at endearing himself to local audiences by the simple expedient of re-titling his compositions ...

This recorded performance of the Kaiser-Alexander-Huldigungs-Marsch presents Arthur Kulling's orchestration of Büttner's published piano edition (discovered at the State Public Saltykow-Schtschedrin National Library, St Petersburg, by Dr Thomas Aigner of the Vienna Institute for Strauss Research), as the original orchestral version was not available in time for the recording in February 1994.

[5]   BALLETTMUSIK AUS "INDIGO UND DIE VIERZIG RÄUBER"

       (Ballet music from "Indigo and the Forty Thieves")

The opening night playbill for Indigo und die vierzig Räuber (Indigo and the Forty Thieves) credited the co-director of Vienna's Theater an der Wien, Maximilian Steiner (1830-80), as librettist of this first stage work by Vienna's Waltz King, Johann Strauss. The extent to which Steiner was involved in this adaptation of a tale from The Arabian Nights remains unclear, but the appearance of his solitary name masked the endeavours of as many as two dozen co-authors - a fact which resulted in the operetta being dubbed Indigo and the Forty Librettists. Yet, whatever the shortcomings of the Indigo libretto, Strauss's eagerly awaited operetta début proved hugely popular with Viennese audiences and, after its première at Steiner's theatre on 10 February 1871, it was seen there a further sixty-nine times up until 20 January 1874.

It was Maximilian Steiner's idea to present an impressive ballet scene during the course of Indigo, as a musical and visual entertainment for the public. For his part, Johann Strauss was happy to oblige, and the resulting ballet music was inserted as No. 18a in Act 3, where it appears between the Act 3 'Introduction and Market Chorus' (No. 18) and Alibaba's 'Lied' (No. 19), "Kennt Ihr Männer und Ihr Weiber". In seeking to evoke the world of The Thousand and One Nights, the composer here deliberately avoided further reference to the waltz, having already partially sated his audience's appetite for three-quarter-time with the Act 1 Trio (No. 5), "la, so singt man, ja so singt man in der Stadt wo ich geboren".

During the 1960s the conductor, composer and renowned Strauss authority, Max Schönherr (1903-84) expanded Johann Strauss's ballet music from Indigo und die vierzig Räuber into an effective freestanding concert piece. By skilful instrumentation, Schönherr erected a framework of music from Act 3 around a core section comprising an arrangement of Strauss's original ballet music, regrettably omitting the Coda. In place of Strauss's original and superlative Coda section, Schönherr decided to interpolate what - in his view - Strauss had overlooked; namely music from the Act 1 waltz song for Fantasca, Janio and Romadur, "Ja, so singt man, ja so singt man in der Stadt wo ich geboren" ('Yes, that's how they sing, yes that's how they sing in the city where I was born').

Max Schönherr's arrangement of the Indigo ballet music commences with the closing bars of the Act 3 'Melodram' (No. 22a in C.A. Spina's first edition piano / vocal score). This leads directly into the Act 2 'Schlachtrnusik' (No. 15), ending with an extended fanfare section which heralds Strauss's original ballet music. Schönherr's arrangement excludes the Coda from the ballet, instead interpolating music from the Act 1 waltz song, as mentioned above. Schönherr then chose to end his arrangement with music taken from the beginning of the Allegro section of the Act 3 Finale (Alibaba: "König, nimm von mir ein Souvenir hier") through to the end of the operetta, adapting the final bars himself.

Aficionados of Viennese light music are occasionally aghast at Max Schönherr's 'modern' arrangements of some Strauss music, prime areas for criticism including his treatment of the ballet music from the operettas Der Carneval in Rom (Volume 45 of this CD series) and Indigo und die vierzig Räuber. In Light Music from Austria: Reminiscences and Writings of Max Schönherr (1992), the biographer Andrew Lamb seeks to explain Schönherr's intentions in the field of arranging: "Most commonly the name of Schönherr as arranger is attached to the compositions of the Strausses. His role in this connection is easily misunderstood ... It is, in fact, basically an exercise in making the music more readily accessible by presenting it according to the conventions of the present day. Most obviously there is the need to rewrite certain parts in the keys used by the transposing instruments of today. In addition there is the need to present compositions in as faithful a form as possible for the varied light music combinations of today". Max Schönherr's artistic arrangement of Johann Strauss's ballet music from the operetta Indigo is a typical example.

[6] COLISEUM WALTZES o.op

Enhanced by a lifelike portrait of Vienna's bewhiskered Waltz King as he appeared at the time of his visit to the United States of America in 1872, the first piano edition of Johann Strauss's Coliseum Waltzes was issued by the Philadelphia publishing house of Lee & Walker and registered with the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington in 1872. No performing material for orchestra is known to have been published. (Lee & Walker were the successors to George Willig & Co. of Baltimore, the publishers of Strauss' Enchantment Waltzes.)

The waltz took its title from the focal point of the 1872 World's Peace Jubilee and International Musical Festival, the gigantic Coliseum building erected in the Back Bay district of Boston, Massachusetts, an area once part of Boston Harbour which had been reclaimed by landfill. To a design by the architect William G. Preston, work on the pilings for the Coliseum began on 4 March 1872, but on 26 April a severe whirlwind destroyed the partially constructed building. The edifice which arose in its place departed from the original plans for a curved-roof structure with an open span of 350 feet, and instead was closer to the design of the earlier Coliseum, built for the 1869 National Peace Jubilee in Boston's St James's Park (on the site of today's Copley Plaza Hotel), though more ornamental and Italianate in external appearance. Notwithstanding the havoc wrought by the windstorm, the mammoth timber-framed structure was eventually completed in record time, ready for the opening day of festivities on 17 June 1872. The exterior and interior of the Coliseum were decorated with banners up to 50 feet (15.24m) in length, the flags of various countries, stained glass windows, heraldic emblems, crests and arms of all nations, carved reliefs of famous composers and huge painted murals up to 1,400 square feet (130.10 square metres) in area. The central feature of the front was a grand arched portal 25 feet (7.62m) in width and 50 feet in height, surmounted by a pediment, while the roof was adorned with seven ventilating turrets, the central turret predominating in size and elegance above the rest. Midway on either side rose a Mansard-roofed tower 25 feet above the lean-to roofs. The completed Coliseum, measuring 550 feet (167.6m) in length, 350 feet (106.7m) in width and 115 feet (35.05m) in height, boasted a seating capacity for 50,000 persons.

It seems that at no time during his official engagement at the Boston Jubilee from 17 June until 4 July 1872, nor at the benefit concert held in his honour on 6 July, did Johann Strauss conduct his Coliseum Waltzes. The American newspapers which, between them, covered the festival in great detail, also carried no reports of a performance of the waltz during Strauss's brief stay in New York to conduct three concerts at the Academy of Music on 8, 10 and 12 July 1872. The existence of the Coliseum Waltzes was made known by Dann Chamberlin, an American member of The Johann Strauss Society of Great Britain, who unearthed the piano score during a visit to the Library of Congress in Washington in autumn 1983. In due course he introduced the waltz to the American musicologist, composer and arranger Jerome D. Cohen, whose orchestration of the work for this Marco Polo recording is based on the Lee & Walker piano edition. In his analysis of Johann's 'American' waltzes for the journal Tritsch-Tratsch (No. 55, 1988), another member of the British Strauss Society, Norman Godel, draws particular attention to theme 2B of the Coliseum Waltzes, which he notes is written entirely in the minor key. He observes that while there are many instances in Johann's waltzes of themes starting and ending in minor keys (for example, the opening themes of Vibrationen op. 204 and Märchen aus dem Orient op. 444),it is most unusual in a Strauss waltz for a theme to remain throughout in the minor key. He continues: "Strangely, Johann achieved it again in yet another American publication, namely theme 3A of 'Autograph'" (Volume 44 of this CD series) Returning to the Coliseum Waltzes, Godel states further: "Although the waltz has no Introduction - at least not in the piano arrangement - it possesses a Coda which begins straight away with a repeat of the first theme, followed by themes 1B and 4B with no linking passages at all. However, the waltz concludes with a 37-bar passage more in keeping with that expected of a Strauss waltz". Whether by design or coincidence, three of the first four notes of the waltz are the same as those in theme 1A of Johann's An der schönen blauen Donau (By the beautiful blue Danube) op. 314, while the opening themes of both works are rhythmically very similar.

The Boston Coliseum itself is no more; but the memory of it and the events of summer 1872 live on in the Coliseum Waltzes.

[7] FAUST-QUADRILLE (Faust Quadrille) [op. 277]

To a text by J. Barbier and M. Carré, after Goethe's dramatic poem, Faust (Part 1, 1808; Part 2, 1832), Charles-François Gounod's opera of the same name enjoyed its world première at the Théâtre-Lyrique in Paris on 19 March 1859. Such was the success of the opera that Gounod (1818-93) was able to celebrate its 500th performance in the French capital on 4 November 1887. Following the Paris première, opera houses around the world soon added the five-act work to their repertoires: Vienna first saw it (in German) on 8 February 1862 at the k.k. Hof-Operntheater, while in January 1864 it was staged for the first time at St Petersburg, in Italian (Not until 27 September 1869 was a Russian-language production of the opera mounted at St Petersburg.)

Johann Strauss's Faust-Quadrille was among the cache of compositions which the 38-year-old Viennese Kapellmeister wrote for Russian audiences attending his 1864 summer season of concerts at the Vauxhall Pavilion in Pavlovsk. Although he naturally wished to take advantage of the recent production of Faust at St Petersburg, it remains wholly unclear why Johann troubled to make this arrangement from the Gounod opera, rather than turn to the Faust-Quadrille which his brother Josef had already composed and first performed at Schwender's Neue Welt establishment in Hietzing on 11 August 1861. Whatever the reason, Johann's own Faust-Quadrille appeared for the first time on the programme of his concert at Pavlovsk on 11 May 1864 (= 29 April, Russian calendar), just six days after the opening (5 May / 23 April 1864) of his ninth season under Russian skies. The new quadrille proved popular with the Pavlovsk audiences and was performed a total of 15 times during the five-month engagement.

Presumably since Josef Strauss's Faust-Quadrille had already appeared from C.A. Spina's Vienna publishing house (as op. 112), brother Johann's Faust-Quadrille remained unpublished in his home city. Instead, the work saw publication only in Russia when A. Büttner of St Petersburg issued it as op. 277 with the fashionable French title, Faust-Quadrille sur des thèmes de l'opéra Faust et Marguerite de Ch. Gounod, par Jean Strauss. As Dr Thomas Aigner of the Vienna Institute for Strauss Research correctly established in his article "Hommage à Gounod - Wettstreit der Brüder Strauss?" (Homage to Gounod - Rivalry between the Strauss brothers?), published in the journal Die Fledermaus (No. 6, January 1993), Johann's and Josef's quadrilles on themes from Gounod's Faust could hardly have existed alongside each other in the Strauss Orchestra's repertoire: twelve of the respective fifteen (Josef) and sixteen (Johann) themes feature in both quadrilles, albeit for the most part in a different order. For the 'Finale' section (Figure 6), both brothers commence with music from the orchestral prelude to the 'Soldiers' Chorus' (No. 22 in the opera's published piano score), but only Johann remained with the impressive melody of the soldiers' chorus itself ("Gloire immortelle de nos aïeux") to render the more effective climax. Subsequently, both quadrilles disappeared into the Strauss Orchestra's archive fairly rapidly, Johann's Faust-Quadrille having been located during Dr Aigner's researches at the State Public Saltykow-Schtschedrin National Library in St Petersburg.

Johann Strauss's Faust-Quadrille utilises the following thematic source material from Gounod's opera:

Pantalon      -

(Act 5, No. 29) Orchestral introduction to Faust's 'Drinking Song'; (Act 5, No. 29) Faust's 'Drinking Song': "Doux nectar, dans ton ivresse"; (Act 1, No. 4) Duet for Mephisto and Faust, Faust: "A moi les plaisirs, les jeunes maîtresses"

Eté              -

(Act 2, No. 5) Choral group (kermis-time), Wagner; "Jeune adepte du tonneau"; (Act 3, No. 12) Faust's Cavatine, "Salut! demeure chaste et pure"

Poule           -

(Act 3, No. 10) Intermezzo and Siébel¡¦s aria; "Faites-lui mes aveux"; (Act 1, No. 2) Scene and chorus, women: "Déjà l'oiseau chante ses folles chansons"; (Act 1, No. 2) Scene and chorus, women; "Paresseuse fille, qui someille encor"

Trénis          -

(Act 2, No. 5) Choral group (kermis-time), students: "Vin ou bière"; (Act 4, No. 29) 'Drinking Song', orchestral accompaniment to Mephisto; "Que ton ivresse, ô volupte"; (Act 5, No. 29) 'Drinking Song', orchestral accompaniment to Mephisto; "Etouffe le remords dans son coeur enchante"

Pastourelle   -

(Act 5, No. 30) Prison scene, Margarethe: "Qui, c¡¦est toi ... je t'aime"; (Act 2, No. 5) Choral group (kermis-time), first burgher: "Aux jours de dimanche et de fête"; (Act 2, No. 5) Choral group (kermis-time), first burgher: "Je vais m'asseoir sur les côteaux"

Finale          -

(Act 4, No. 22) Soldiers' chorus, orchestral introduction; (Act 4, No. 22) Soldiers' chorus: "Gloire immortelle de nos aïeux"

(NB: Following the world première, the score of Gounod's Faust was frequently re-worked. The above synopsis is based on the reconstruction made in 1869 for the Paris Opéra.)

[8]   KAISER FRANZ JOSEPH-JUBILÄUMS-MARSCH

       (Emperor Franz Josef Jubilee March) o. op

On 2 December 1848, in the north Moravian garrison town of Olmütz (now Olomouc in the former Czechoslovakia), there took place two ceremonies which were to have enormous import on the passage of European history. In the wake of the defeat of the Revolution in Vienna, the seriously ailing Austrian Emperor Ferdinand (1793-1875) read out the Abdication Act, declaring: "Important decisions have led Us to the irrevocable decision to lay down Our Crown in favour of Our beloved nephew, Archduke Franz Josef ...". In so doing, Ferdinand surrendered his Austrian Imperial titles, together with the crowns of Bohemia, Hungary and Lombardy, to the 18-year-old Archduke Franz von Habsburg-Lothringen, eldest son of Archduke Karl (1802-78) and his wife, the Archduchess Sophie (1805-72). Retaining his two baptismal names as sovereign, the young monarch chose to reign as 'Franz Josef I', rather than 'Franz II' as styled in the first draft of the proclamation.

Fifty years later, the Golden Jubilee of Franz Josef's reign was marked by celebrations throughout the Habsburg Empire, not only during the anniversary month of December 1898 but also in anticipation of it. For his part, Johann Strauss had some time previously been called upon to honour the Emperor's forthcoming semicentennial with a suitable musical tribute, and in this connection a march had been mentioned. The composer dutifully sketched out a Kaiser Franz Joseph-Jubiläums-Marsch; copies of the score for this march (for chorus and orchestra, but without text, as well as for piano) were found in the Waltz King's posthumous papers after he died on 3 June 1899. These are preserved in the Wiener Stadt- und Landesbibliothek (Vienna City and Regional Library).

It seems that during spring 1898 Johann Strauss changed his plans regarding his intended Jubilee tribute, for he was required to furnish the Wiener Männergesang-Verein (Vienna Men's Choral Association) with a work for their concert at the Federal Sharpshooters' Festival in the Prater on 28 June 1898. The work he contributed was the Auf's Korn! Bundesschützen-Matsch (Take Aim! Federal Sharpshooters' March - see Volume 50 of this CD series) op. 478, evidently a choral arrangement of an unnamed march he had already written, and to which the popular writer Vincenz Chiavacci (1847-1916) had added a text. Appropriately, Strauss dedicated this cheerful work "To the Central Committee for the Imperial Jubilee and the 5th Austrian Federal Shooting Competition". The composer took the title of his march from the first line of Chiavacci's text ("Leget an, nehmt auf's Korn, zielt und schiesst / Ihr wackern Schützenleut'"), while he appropriated the entire trio section from his as yet unperformed and unpublished Kaiser Franz Joseph-Jubiläums-Matsch. Johann himself chronicled the precise course of events in a letter he wrote to his brother, Eduard, on 30 May 1898: "... I cannot send you the ['Kaiser Franz Joseph-Jubiläums'] march, because I have used the Trio for the Schützenmarsch [ = 'Auf's Korn!'] and will write another Trio for the Männergesangverein (in the autumn). I shall send you the march if you should need the 'Obersteigermarsch' [march by Carl Zeller from his 1894 operetta 'Der Obersteiger']. On the other side of the sheet on which this is written, is the Kaiserjubiläumsmarsch, which has just been carved up and so is unusable. [Jungmann &] Lerch (the publisher) will send you the Schützenmarsch. Performance of the same at the end of June. [I] Do not possess a second full score, otherwise I would have made this available to you immediately".

In the late afternoon of Sunday 27 November 1898, five months after the performance by the Wiener Männergesang-Verein, the Golden Hall of the Vienna Musikverein was the venue for a "Benefit Concert by Eduard Strauss, Imperial and Royal Court Ball Music Director, with the participation of Johann Strauss, Imperial and Royal Court Ball Music Director". On the programme were two works which had been written for the Emperor's Jubilee on 2 December 1898: Eduard Strauss's Jubel-Walzer (Jubilation Waltz) op. 296, which had been heard for the first time on 27 February 1898, and a purely orchestral version of Johann Strauss's Kaiser Franz Josef-Jubiläums-Marsch [sic], which was enjoying its première. Both pieces were conducted by their respective composers. Johann repeated his dedication march at the Theater an der Wien on 1 December 1898, the day before Franz Josef's actual fiftieth anniversary.

What appears, at first sight, comparatively straightforward soon becomes confused because of a note against the Kaiser Franz Joseph-Jubiläums-Marsch on the programme of the Musikverein concert on 27 November 1898. This reads: "Published for piano and orchestra by Jungmann & Lerch, I. Augustinerstrasse 8 [Vienna]". The only march by Johann Strauss ever issued by this publishing house (formerly C.A. Spina) was the Auf's Korn! Bundesschützen-Marsch, and it therefore remains unclear which version of the march was heard at the Musikverein. Regrettably, no light was shed on the matter by the Fremden-Blatt, which reported on this performance of the "brilliant 'Kaiser-Jubiläums-Marsch'" in its edition of 29 November 1898: "This resounding piece of music, which had an electrifying effect, will be a valuable gift to the military bands and will quickly become popular".

This first-ever recording of Johann Strauss's Kaiser Franz Joseph-Jubiläums-Marsch utilises the score copy housed in the collection of the Wiener Stadt- und Landesbibliothek.

[9] SOUNDS FROM BOSTON (GESCHICHTEN AUF DEM BOSTON). WALTZES o.op

According to a note in the Boston Daily Evening Transcript on 7 June 1872, "Johann Strauss has concluded to compose a dashing potpourri, made up of excerpts from the best of his former works, and to which he will give the appropriate name of 'Sounds of Boston'". The American newspaper printed this information just eight days before Vienna's Waltz King arrived in Boston, Massachusetts, to conduct at the World's Peace Jubilee and International Musical Festival, a mammoth musical event extending from 17 June until its 'official' close on 4 July 1872.

For some reason, perhaps because he had not completed it in time, Strauss did not perform Sounds of Boston at the International Musical Festival nor at any of the attendant entertainments. The work did, however, subsequently appear as Sounds from Boston [sic] from the Boston publishing house of White, Smith & Perry in three separate printed editions: piano solo, reduced ("Arranged for 9 parts") orchestra and full orchestra. The piano edition of the waltz was registered with the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington in 1872, and the waltz (like all but one of those originating from Johann's 1872 visit) was never published in Vienna. At the suggestion of Richard Pittman, conductor of the Concord Orchestra of Massachusetts and professor at the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, two members of The Johann Strauss Society of Great Britain, Dann Chamberlin and Norman Godel, unearthed the orchestral parts for Sounds from Boston at the Conservatory, and Mr Chamberlin later located the piano score in the Arthur Fiedler Collection at Boston University. Having earlier suspected the probable intervention of a publisher's house arranger, the American composer, arranger and musicologist, Jerome D. Cohen, examined the published material for full orchestra and was immediately struck by "the delicacy of the scoring", strongly reminiscent of "the kind of transparency you find in a genuine Strauss orchestration". As a result, Mr Cohen abandoned any idea of orchestrating the waltz afresh and confined himself to correcting various errors in the White, Smith & Perry orchestral parts when preparing his performing edition, as recorded here. The thematic material used for Sounds from Boston is drawn from the following published Strauss waltzes:

Introduction   -

theme 1A from Wahlstimmen op. 250 - 8 bars from the Introduction to Johann Strauss Father's waltz Deutsche Lust oder: Donau-Lieder ohne Text op. 127 (1841) - 3-bar bridge passage

Waltz 1A      -

theme 1A from Juristen-Ball-Tänze op. 177

Waltz 1B       -

theme 5A from Juristen-Ball-Tänze op. 177

Waltz 2A       -

theme 3A from Bürgersinn op. 295

Waltz 2B      -

theme 1B from Rhadamantus-Klänge op. 94

Waltz 3A      -

theme 3B from Myrthen-Kränze op. 154

Waltz 3B       -

theme 2B from Rhadamantus-Klänge op. 94

Waltz 4A       -

theme 4A from Spiralen op. 209

Waltz 4B       -

theme 4A from Feen-Märchen op. 312

Waltz 5A       -

theme 1A from Lebenswecker op. 232

Waltz 5B       -

theme 1B from Lebenswecker op. 232

Coda             -

32 bars from Coda section of Rhadamantus-Klänge op. 94 - theme 3B from Myrthen-Kränze op. 154 - 68 bars from the Coda section of Juristen-Ball-Tänze op.177 - closing 12 bars

One can only surmise that Johann considered it an apposite Viennese greeting to America to include in the Introduction of Sounds from Boston a quotation from his father's waltz Deutsche Lust oder: Donau-Lieder ohne Text (German Delight, or Danube Songs Without Words) op. 127. (He had also quoted from this waltz in the Coda of his earlier "Deutsche" Walzer op. 220 of 1859.) The remaining themes comprising Sounds from Boston are all from waltzes by the younger Johann Strauss dating from 1851 to 1866. An unusual feature of Sounds from Boston is the fact that it consists of five waltz sections, a standard form which Johann had adopted for the final time with his waltz Freuet euch des Lebens op. 340 of 1870.

White, Smith & Perry's first piano edition of Sounds from Boston bears an alternative title in German: Geschichten auf dem Boston (literally, Tales from Boston), as well as the composer's dedication "To Napier Lothian, Boston, U.S.A.". Lothian was musical director of the Boston Theatre at the time of Johann's visit in 1872: on 22 June, Johann and his wife attended a performance by the Vokes Family of The Belles of the Kitchen (being "laughter-provoking illustrations of high life below stairs"), and during the interval Lothian honoured the Viennese maestro by directing the theatre orchestra in a performance of Johann's waltz An der schönen blauen Donau (By the beautiful blue Danube) op. 314. The Boston Daily Evening Transcript later reported in its edition of 1 July 1872: "Strauss paid Mr. Napier Lothian a very handsome compliment, saying he had never seen anyone conduct his waltzes in more perfect time. He also praised the fine orchestra of the Boston Theatre". It seems probable that the waltz Sounds from Boston was published after this episode. It is interesting to note that Lothian's wife taught for many years at the New England Conservatory of Music, and the orchestrations for some 101 works by the three Strauss brothers (including Johann's Sounds from Boston) are today housed in the Conservatory's "Napier Lothian Theater Orchestra Collection", once the private property of Lothian himself.

If a report published in the New York Sun on 13 July 1872 is to be believed, Strauss had little time for Boston or its inhabitants. In answer to the question posed by the paper's journalist, "How do you like Boston?", Vienna's Waltz King allegedly responded (in uncharacteristically undiplomatic fashion): "I did not like it. Boston is Puritanical, stupid, dull. There is no life in the street. There is no display of elegance or luxury. The women are homely, and do not dress nicely. I do not like Boston. But with New York I am perfectly charmed (mit New York bin ich ganz entzückt)". The New York Sun interviewer may well have been enjoying a bluster of 'one-upmanship' over his Boston rivals, since a journalistic duel had raged between newspapers in Boston and New York throughout the Jubilee celebrations. Doubtless born of New York's jealousy over 'parochial' Boston's colossal musical venture, the cities' respective newspapers adopted a mutually contemptuous approach: while, for example, the New York World (19.06.1872) decried Strauss as "the little hop and skip maestro, hot from the wicked salons of Vienna" and adjudged his music "clap-trap", the Boston Globe (21.06.1872) retorted that "New York is to be pitied" and a Boston periodical, Jubilee Days (20.06.1872), likened New York's critics to a herd of mules.

[10] BALLETTMUSIK AUS "DIE FLEDERMAUS"

       (Ballet music from "Die Fledermaus" / "The Bat")

Johann Strauss's three-act comic operetta Die Fledermaus is not only the composer's most famous stage work, but it may justly lay claim to being the most celebrated operetta of all time. Since the world première of the piece, conducted by the composer at Vienna's Theater an der Wien on Easter Sunday 5 April 1874, there can scarcely have been an opera house or theatre in the world that has not staged Die Fledermaus, while audiences everywhere continue to be intoxicated by Strauss's sparkling 'Champagne Operetta'.

Yet only a very few of those who see the many productions of Die Fledermaus are familiar with the ballet music which Johann Strauss wrote for Prince Orlofsky's grand supper party in Act 2. As a rule, Strauss's ballet score is replaced by Fruhlingsstimmen or another of the great waltzes, or by a quick polka such as Unter Donner und Blitz. Since, invariably, these interpolations are presented as a ballet sequence, it is as much an injustice to Strauss himself that his original ballet music is discarded, as it is a reflection of the high-handed attitude of theatrical (and recording) producers who elect to omit it.

The musically and visually appealing ballet occupies a central position (as No. 11b in the score) in the Finale of Act 2. After a 9-bar introduction, it is divided into five quite distinct sections, the individual segments of which present characteristic dances with the following titles: Spanish (danced at the première by Fräulein Grillich and eight ladies from the ballet), Scottish (Fräulein Geraldini and Messrs Fechtner, Wollschack, Meier and Wiest), Russian (Fräulein Angelina Bonesi, Fräulein Stubenvoll and Messrs Nagelschmidt, Gwetkofsky, Guhr, Schmidt and Großeli), Bohemian (Fräulein Walter, Fräulein Raab and Anna Thorn) and Hungarian (Fräulein Benda and Herr Couqui). In the Bohemian section, a polka is played to which the chorus sings the merry text: "Marianka, komm und tanz' me hier!" ('Marianka, come here and dance with me!'). The Hungarian dance concludes with a reprise of music from Rosalinde's vocal Csárdás (No. 10) heard earlier in Act 2. Strauss took a great deal of trouble with his cleverly contrived ballet score, deliberately omitting reference to the Viennese Waltz since the rhythms of this latter dance provide several highlights in Act 2, most notably in the 'Fledermaus-Walzer' itself ("Ha, welch ein Fest, welche Nacht voll Freud'!").

The value of this "international" ballet sequence was not lost on the first-night critics, with the reporter for the Wiener Extrablatt (7.04.1874) noting: "The second act contains charming and characteristic ballet music ... A virtuoso comic polka, masterly danced by the ladies Walter, Raab and Anna Thorn, caused a complete sensation and had to be repeated". It is all the more surprising, therefore, that Johann Strauss's ballet score for Die Fledermaus has only very rarely found its way into the concert hall: the Strauss Orchestra, for example, never included the work in its repertoire, although the orchestral parts existed in its Archive. This sadly neglected music, so rich in variety throughout all its five sections, thus forms an important addition to the collection of recordings in this Complete Edition.

[11] AUFZUGSMARSCH AUS "EINE NACHT IN VENEDIG"

       (Processional March from" A Night in Venice") o.op

The Aufzugsmarsch (No.17a in the score) heralds the Act 3 Finale (No. l7b) of Johann Strauss's operetta Eine Nacht in Venedig. The setting for this last act is the renowned St Mark's Square in Venice, before the moonlit cathedral. The original version of the operetta, seen in Berlin on 3 October 1883, underwent major structural changes to music and libretto before the work was mounted in Vienna just six days later. The revised libretto prepared for the first Viennese production on 9 October 1883 details the scenic and choreographic directions for the colourful masked procession which accompanies Strauss's brisk and tuneful Aufzugsmarsch (quoted here, in translation, from the Complete Edition of Eine Nacht in Venedig, published by Doblinger / Universal Edition in 1970):

"Fanfares resound, then a splendid march strikes up. The procession opens with a number of Harlequins, Pierrots etc. Then come the gondoliers with flower-encircled oars, carrying in their midst a long gondola in the familiar Venetian form. Then a group of Venetian mirrors in the mediaeval style, each carried by an individual as a breastplate. Now follows St Mark, at his side a winged lion. Various popular objects from Venice follow after him, for example the clock-tower, behind [it] a large walking bell. Tritons, playing on shell trumpets, go on ahead of Adria [the personification of the Adriatic Sea], who stands on a carriage of shell drawn by negroes bedecked with seaweed wreaths and gleaming pearls; there follows - personified - the 'Frutti di mare', comprising fish etc. The procession passes at a moderately brisk tempo; when it stops, pigeons fly about from all corners of the stage: the pigeons of St Mark's, portrayed by a graceful troupe of ladies. They step forth in pairs (as male and female pigeons) in short, white, decorative feather costumes, each with a pigeon on their left shoulder, sandals on their feet, their helmet-like head coverings shaped exactly like the crest of a pigeon."

Strauss's spirited orchestral Aufzugsmarsch is crafted from melodies in Acts 2 and 3 of Eine Nacht in Venedig. A fanfare section leads directly into music from the chorus in the Act 2 Finale (No. 13), "Jetzt ist Zeit zur Lustbarkeit". The themes of the Trio (2A and 2B) are taken from the 'Melodram' section in the Act 3 Finale (No. 17b), theme 2A itself being earlier heard sung by Caramello (at twice the speed in "Man steckt ein") in the Act 2 'Ensemble und Couplets' (No. 11).

The Aufzugsmarsch from Eine Nacht in Venedig was first played as a concert piece on Sunday 14 October 1883 at the Restaurant F. Puchtl (then situated at Mariahilferstrasse No. 1, in Vienna's sixth district) by the civilian orchestra of Carl Wilhelm Drescher (1850-1925). The announcement of this evening concert in the pages of the Fremden-Blatt (14.10.1883) read: "New: first performance from Johann Strauss's operetta 'Eine Nacht in Venedig' - 1. Aufzugsmarsch 2. Gondellied 3. Grosses Potpourri". (For this performance, Drescher himself arranged these pieces for salon orchestra.) The appearance of this advertisement is particularly suprising in view of the fact that C.A. Spina (Alwin Cranz), the publisher of Eine Nacht in Venedig, did not announce the issue of the above three extracts from Strauss's operetta until 27 October 1883.

The first concert performance of the Aufzugsmarsch by the Strauss Orchestra followed six weeks later when the composer's brother, Eduard Strauss, conducted the work at his Sunday afternoon concert ("Wiens Tanzmusik" - Vienna's Dance Music) in the Golden Hall of the Vienna Musikverein on 25 November 1883. It remains in question whether this performance, given in Eduard's own arrangement, was in the original key of A flat major (as the march appears in the operetta score), or in the new key of G major used in the printed edition of the march.

Programme notes © 1995 Peter Kemp. The Johann Strauss Society of Great Britain.

The author is indebted to Professor Franz Mailer for his assistance in the preparation of these notes.

Bratislava City Choir

The Bratislava Chamber Choir was formed in 1971 from former members of various university choirs. Eight years later it took the name of the Bratislava City Choir, in recognition of its unique position in the cultural life of the Slovakian capital, with its long musical traditions. The choir has enjoyed the services of conductors of great distinction during the twenty years it has been in existence and since 1977 has been under the direction of Ladislav Holásek, the chorus master of the Slovak National Opera. The choir has a busy schedule at home, performing regularly at the annual Bratislava Music Festival and with the major orchestras of Slovakia. Abroad the choir has taken part in a number of international competitions throughout Europe, from Llangollen to Greece, winning many awards.

Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra (Bratislava)

The Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra (Bratislava), the oldest symphonic ensemble in Slovakia, was founded in 1929 at the instance of Milos Ruppeldt and Oskar Nedbal, prominent personalities in the sphere of music. Ondrej Lenárd was appointed its conductor in 1970 and in 1977 its conductor-in-chief, succeeded recently by Robert Stankowsky. The orchestra has given successful concerts both at home and abroad, in Germany, Russia, Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Spain, Italy, Great Britain, Hong Kong and Japan. For Marco Polo the orchestra has recorded works by Glazunov, Glière, Miaskovsky and other late romantic composers and film music of Honegger, Bliss, Ibert and Khachaturian as well as several volumes of the label's Johann Strauss Edition. Naxos recordings include symphonies and ballets by Tchaikovsky, and symphonies by Berlioz and Saint-Saëns.

Johannes Wildner

Johannes Wildner was born in the Austrian resort of Mürzzuschlag in 1956 and studied violin and conducting, taking his diploma at the Vienna Musikhochschule and proceeding to a doctorate in musicology. A member of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, he has toured widely as leader of the Vienna Symphony Orchestra's Johann Strauss Ensemble and of the Vienna Mozart Academy. As a conductor he has directed the Orchestra Sinfonica dell'Emilia Romagna Arturo Toscanini, the Budapest State Opera Orchestra, the Silesian Philharmonic, the Malmo Symphony Orchestra, the Dresden Philharmonic and others. He has recorded works by Schumann, Wagner and Mozart for Naxos and is one of the main conductors in the Marco Polo Johann Strauss II complete edition.


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