About this Recording
8.223276 - STRAUSS II, J.: Edition - Vol. 50
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The Johann Strauss Edition

Edition : Volume 50

Johann Strauss II, the most famous and enduringly successful of 19th-century light music composers, was born in Vienna on 25 October 1825. Building upon the firm musical foundations laid by his father, Johann Strauss I (1804-1849) and Joseph Lanner (1801-1843), the younger Johann (along with his brothers, Josef and Eduard) achieved so high a development of the classical Viennese waltz that it became as much a feature of the concert hall as of the ballroom. For more than half a century Johann II captivated not only Vienna but also the whole of Europe and America with his abundantly tuneful waltzes, polkas, quadrilles and marches. The appeal of his music bridged all social strata, and his genius was revered by such masters as Verdi, Brahms and Richard Strauss. The thrice-married 'Waltz King' later turned his attention to the composition of operetta, and completed 16 stage works (among them Die Fledermaus, Eine Nacht in Venedig and Der Zigeunerbaron) besides more than 500 orchestral compositions - including the most famous of all waltzes, The Blue Danube (1867). Johann Strauss II died in Vienna on 3 June 1899.

The Marco Polo Strauss Edition is a milestone in recording history, presenting, for the first time ever, the entire orchestral output of the 'Waltz King'. Despite their supremely high standard of musical invention, the majority of the compositions have never before been commercially recorded and have been painstakingly assembled from archives around the world. All performances featured in this series are complete and, wherever possible, the works are played in their original instrumentation as conceived by the 'master orchestrator' himself, Johann Strauss II.

[1]        CSÁRDÁS AUS "DIE FLEDERMAUS"

(Csárdás from Die Fledermaus)

 

On Sunday 19 October 1873, the following notice appeared in the Viennese Fremden-Blatt newspaper:

"Court Boll Music Director Johann Strauss is organising an interesting concert on the 25th of this mouth in the [Golden] Hall of the Musikverein for the benefit of dependents of victims of the [cholera] epidemic in Hungary. The extensive programme will be substantially enriched by the participation of the Wiener Männergesang-Verein [Vienna Men's Choral Association], Fräulein Geistinger and Frau Rosa Csillig [real name: Rosa Goldstein, 1832-92]. Under the personal direction of the composer Johann Strauss, the Wiener Männergesang-Verein will perform his brilliant waltz 'Bei und z'Haus'. Fräulein Geistinger will perform a newly composed csárdás by Strauss and Frau Csillig several vocal pieces. Naturally the programme also includes the latest and most popular melodies by the Waltz King."

 

Under the patronage of Countess Kathinka Andrássy (1830-96), wife of the Hungarian statesman count Gyula Andrássy (1823-90), the "Extraordinary Vocal and Instrumental Concert" duly took place on the evening of Saturday 25 October 1873 - Strauss's 48th birthday. In place of the Strauss Orchestra, Johann conducted the German-based orchestra of Julius Langenbach (1823-86), which had been engaged to perform at the 1873 Vienna World Exhibition as the official 'World Exhibition Orchestra¡¦. The printed programme listed eleven items, including music by Weber (Overture to Oberon), Berlioz (Danse des Sylphes from La Damnation de Faust), Verdi (Bolero from Les Vêpres siciliennes) and Johann Herbeck (Mercenaries' Chorus), as well as Strauss's own waltz Wiener Blut (op. 373, 1873) and his evergreen collaboration with his brother Josef, the Pizzicato-Polka (o.op., 1869). The seventh item on the programme promised a complete novelty, being announced (in translation) as: "Csárdás for Voice (for the first lime) by Johann Strauss (Marie Geistinger)". The text for this 'vocal csárdás' was the work of the versatile Richard Genée (1823-95), resident conductor at the Theater an der Wien, where the soprano Marie Geistinger (1836-1903) was a co-director.

The Graz-born diva's performance of 5trauss's new csardas seems to have excited no particular attention among the journalists attending the charity concert, for their reports merely mention the piece Five days later, however, the Fremdell-Blatt (30101873) carried the following announcement:

"Court Ball Music Director Johann Strauss is currently composing a new operetta for the Theater an der Wien, which is to be performed there during the course of the month of January [1874]. The csárdás recently presented by Fräulein Geistinger in the Hall of the Musikverein comes from this new operetta".

 

As indicated by the newspaper, this 'vocal csárdás' was to feature prominently in Act 2 of the new operetta, Die Fledermaus, sung by Marie Geistinger in the rôle of Rosalinde, disguised as an Hungarian countess. This vocally-taxing number has remained a staple of soprano repertoire.

After the Waltz King's death in 1899 the autograph full score of his operetta masterpiece, Die Fledermaus, passed through many hands - including confiscation by the Nazi authorities in March 1938 - before eventually being secured by the Wiener Stadt - und Landesbibliothek at auction in Munich in May 1962. This manuscript score naturally includes Rosalinde's Csárdás für Gesang und Orchester (Csárdás for Voice and Orchestra, Act 2, No. 10), as performed by Marie Geistinger at the charity concert in the Musikverein some 19 weeks before the operetta's première at the Theater an der Wien on 5 April 1874. However, in the autograph full score this vocal aria is followed immediately by the score of a purely instrumental version of the same number, albeit differing from it in some details and entitled: Csárdás für Orchester (Csárdás for Orchestra). This was not published until 1968 when it was included in the Eulenburg edition of the Die Fledermaus score, revised by Hans Swarowsky (1899-1975).

The renowned conductor and teacher Hans Swarowsky, who numbered Claudio Abbado and Zubin Mehta among his pupils and who collaborated with Clemens Krauss (1893-1954) on the libretto of Richard Strauss's opera Capriccio (1942), was also a highly-regarded musicologist. He surmised that, of the two versions, the purely orchestral arrangement of the csárdás should be accorded priority. Professor Dr Fritz Racek (1911-75), State Archivist for the City of Vienna and a leading Strauss authority, was of similar opinion. In his "Editor's Report" for the Johann Strauss Gesamtausgabe [Johann Strauss Complete Edition] - SerieII, Band 3: Die Fledermaus, published jointly in Vienna by Doblinger and Universal Edition in 1974, Racek noted: "Strauss may very well have composed the csárdás as an instrumental piece before deciding to have words put to it by Richard Genée and to include it in the programme for that concert. For the operetta, however, it was from the very beginning unquestionably thought of as a vocal number". Racek rightly considered this csárdás an autonomous work and, as such, accorded it a place among Strauss's instrumental compositions. One should not, of course, lose sight of the fact that it was entirely appropriate for Strauss to have contributed an Hungarian csárdás for a charity concert in aid of an Hungarian national tragedy.

This present recording of the Csárdás für Orchester is based on Hans Swarowsky's published edition.

Johann Strauss left it to his brother Eduard (1835-1916) to conduct the first performance of the Csárdás für Orchester, when the latter included it in his Sunday afternoon promenade concert with the Strauss Orchestra in the Musikverein on 25 October 1874 - one year to the day after his brother Johann had first conducted the vocal version of the work in the same establishment.

[2]        DIE GÖTTIN DER VERNUNFT. QUADRILLE

(The Goddess of Reason. Quadrille) (op. 476)

 

"Messrs [Dr Alfred Maria] Willner and [Bernhard] Buchbinder have gone badly wrong, not only in the 'place and time of the action' but also in their choice of - composer. Music by Strauss is full of genial idealism; transplanted into an atmosphere of cheerless realism, it is deprived of its greatest effectiveness. With naive creative joy, the maestro has channelled the precious flood of his melodic spring through the subject matter of the text, bringing it to life, making it blossom and sparkle. Much of this music belongs to the best that the Waltz King has ever offered. He has lent musical expression to the warlike mood of his librettists in two splendid march songs ('Der Schöpfung Meisterstück ist der Husar' and 'Wo unsere Fahbe weht'). For the rest, however - to his good fortune and perhaps also for that of the operetta - he has allowed himself to be influenced very little by the historical and local atmosphere of the textual subject, but has instead improvised enchanting melodies and rhythms with a homely, earthy Viennese flavour".

With these words, the reporter for the Wiener Allgemeine Zeitung (16.03.1897) encapsulated the views of the majority regarding the strengths and weaknesses of Johann Strauss's operetta Die Göttin der Vernunft (The Goddess of Reason), which had received its première at the Theater an der Wien on 13 March 1897. Although the work was to run for just 36 performances in Vienna, it was subsequently staged in New York (Germania-Theater), Berlin (Theater Unter den Linden and the Bellevue- Theater) and elsewhere.

The copyright and performance rights for Die Göttin der Vernunft had been secured by the Emil Berté & Cie publishing house, with offices in Vienna, Leipzig and Paris. In due course the company announced the publication of a march and five dance pieces based on melodies from the operetta. For reasons that are unclear, only three of these works appeared in print: Heut' ist heut'. Walzer op. 471 (Volume 35 of this CD series), Nur nicht mucken! Polka ffançaise op. 472 (Volume 44) and Wo uns're Fahne weht! Marsch op. 473 (Volume 41). The fate of the remaining three pieces ­indeed, whether they had existed at all - remained unknown for almost a century. Then, quite by chance, in 1994 Kapellmeister Christian Pollack unearthed the manuscript piano scores of the three missing works in private ownership in Switzerland. All three - Da nicken die Giebel. Polka-Mazurka op. 474; Frisch gewagt. Galopp op. 475 and the Göttin der Vernunft-Quadrille op. 476 - bore the initials of the arranger and conductor Rudolf Raimann (1861-1913) and were clearly written in his hand. (Raimann had earlier been responsible for making the piano reduction of the operetta Die Göttin der Vernunft for publication.) An additional pencilled note at the end of Da nicken die Giebel attested that Raimann had prepared his piano score of the polka-mazurka from a draft by the composer, conductor and arranger Adolf Müller junior (1839-1901), suggesting that Müller, rather than Raimann or Strauss himself, was responsible for the actual selection and ordering of themes for the dance pieces opp. 474-476 from Die Göttin der Vernunft. Raimann's score for Da nicken die Giebel is also the only one of the three to bear a date: "Vienna, 14 March 1898".

This dating of Da nicken die Giebel is particularly interesting because of its proximity to the date on which another of the three missing works, the Göttin der Vernunft-Quadrille, must have been composed. On 23 January 1898 the Fremden-Blatt newspaper carried a preview of the forthcoming Architekten-Ball (Architects' Ball), to be held on 24 January 1898 at the Sofienbad-Saal in Vienna. The article noted: "Johann Strauss has dedicated a quadrille to the Committee, Heinrich Berté a polka; but Kapellmeister Wilhelm Wacek [1864-1944] has dedicated a waltz to the Honorary Herr President, Government Senior Surveyor of Works Otto Wagner". The identity of Strauss's quadrille dedication was only revealed on the night of the ball and it caused a good deal of interest. In its evening edition of 26 January 1898 the Fremden-Blatt reported: "Johann Strauss dedicated to the Committee a quadrille: 'Göttin der Vernunft', which contained charming melodies and received tempestuous applause, all the more since it was played very precisely by the band of the Deutschmeister Regiment [Infantry Regiment No. 4] under the direction of Kapellmeister Wacek".

Was Strauss himself responsible for compiling the Göttin der Vernunft-Quadrille from melodies in his operetta score? Or, as seems more likely, was it assembled on his behalf from Emil Berté & Cie's published piano/vocal score by Müller or Kapellmeister Wilhelm Wacek? Another possibility is that Müller made the initial selection of themes and that Wacek arranged them for performance by his band at the Architects' Ball. Yet, despite its success, the quadrille remained unpublished and found no place in either the repertoire of the Strauss Orchestra or, as far as can be traced, any other civilian or military ensemble.

 

The six figures, or sections, of the dance work present material from the following sources in Die Göttin der Vernunft:

No. 1 Pantalon

-  Act 1Introduction und Chor (No. 1): Damenchor, "Frisch und nett, schneidig und adrett"; Act 2 Carmagnole (No. 12a), orchestral interlude before final section; repetition of "Frisch und nett, schneidig und adrett"; Act 3 Duett (No. 13): Bonhomme and Susette, sung by Bonhomme to the words "Sind jung die Gatten noch an Jahren"

 

No. 2 Eté

-  Act 1 Auftrittslied (No. 3): Bonhomme, "Nur nicht denken, spekulieren"; Act 1 Auftrittslied (No. 5): Comtesse, "Nur in der Schule sang ich Lieder fromm und lang"

 

No. 3 Poule

-  Act 2 Finale (No. 12): passage sung first by Bonhomme to the words, "Nur still, ich bring' den ganzen Tross in Sicherheit nach meinem Schloss!"; Act 2 Carmagnole (No. 12a): Chor, "Die Zeit ist gross, die Zeit ist toll"; repetition of "Nur still, ich bring' den ganzen Tross in Sicherheit nach meinem Schloss!"; Act 1 Finale (No. 7): accompaniment to section sung first by Ernestine to the words "Wohlan! Nun wol, Ihr Herren, wie ich seh', bestehen Sie auf dem Souper". (NB: All source material in the 'Poule' section appears in 2/4 tempo in the operetta, and in 6/8 tempo in the quadrille.)

 

No. 4 Trénis

Act 1 Lied (No. 6): Bonhomme, "Robespierre, der lose Schäcker"; Act 1 Auftrittslied mit Chor (No. 2a): Robert, "Den Säbel an der Seite, das Herz am rechten Fleck"

 

No. 5 Pastourelle

-  Act 1 Auftrittslied (No. 3): Bonhomme, "Na ja, na ja! So hab' ich mir zu recht gelegt" (NB: this melody appears immediately before that commencing the Eté section); Act 1 Auftrittslied (No. 3): Bonhomme, "Der Arzt hat streng mir ordinirt"

 

No. 6 Finale

-  Act 1 Auftrittslied (No. 5): Comtesse, "Bitte rührt mich nur nicht an, weil ich's nicht vertragen kann!"; Act 3 Marsch - ­Quartett (No. 15): Comtesse, Ernestine, Robert and Jacquelin to the words "Halt, wer da? Wer klopf an meine Thür?"

 

This present recording of the Die Göttin der Vernunft-Quadrille has been arranged from the piano score by Kapellmeister Christian Pollack, who has referred extensively to the instrumentation of the incomplete manuscript full score of the operetta Die Göttin der Vernunft housed in the collection of the Wiener Stadt- und Landesbibliothek in Vienna.

(NOTE: The above analysis of op. 476 is based on the piano/vocal score of Die Göttin der Vernunft, published by Emil Berté & Cie in 1897.)

[3]        ¡§AM DONAUSTRAND¡¨ (¡¥On the Banks of the Danube¡¦)

Readers of Volume 1 of the 1886 issue of the Viennese magazine All der Schönen, blauen Donau (By the Beautiful, Blue Danube), published on 15 January 1886, were treated to an interesting musical supplement. Entitled "Am Donaustrand. Improvisation für Singstimme mit Klavier" ('On the Banks of the Danube.' Improvisation for voice and piano), the music for the 32-bar piece was by Johann Strauss while Ignaz Schnitzer (1839-1921), the librettist of Strauss's operetta Der Zigeunerbaroll (The Gypsy Baron, 1885), provided the text:

"Ach, welch ein Leben! klar und helle, wie die Welle sprudelt es dahin! Frauen und Reben, herbe, wilde, süsse, milde, duften hier und blüh'n! Zieht dich die Zauber macht lieblicher Augenpracht hin an den Strand der Donau, ja, da gibt es kein Entflieh'n!"

 

('Ah, what a life! Clear and bright as the waves, it bubbles away! Women and grapes, bitter, wild, sweet and mild, flourish and waft their perfume here! If the magical power of delightful visual splendour draws you to the banks of the Danube, there is no escape!')

This charming and amusing little work artistically combines an accompaniment comprising the principal melody (theme 1A) from the Waltz King's most famous waltz composition, An der schönen blauen Donau op. 314 of 1867, with a vocal line consisting of the opening melody (theme 1A) of a waltz which the composer was yet to unveil to the world - Les dames de St Petersbourgh (The Ladies of St Petersburg). Not until 27 April 1886 (= 15 April, Russian calendar) did Johann conduct the world première of Les dames de St Petersbourgh, appropriately at St Petersburg, while Viennese audiences had to wait until 14 February 1887 before being introduced to the delights of the new waltz under its judiciously amended title: Wiener Frauen (Viennese Women) op. 423. There is, however, no evidence of a public performance of Johann's "Improvisation for voice and piano", "Am Donaustrand".

 

The autograph manuscript of "Am Donaustrand" seems not to have survived, and it is therefore not possible to determine the individual contributions of composer and lyricist. The orchestral version of the song heard on this Marco Polo recording has been especially prepared by Michael Rot from the edition for piano and voice originally published by the magazine An der schönen, blauen Donau.

 

[4]        "ERSTE LIEBE", ROMANZE (¡¥First Love¡¦, Romance)

Olga Smirnitskaya (1837-1920)

 

In October 1884, on the occasion of his 40th anniversary as composer and conductor, Johann Strauss received among numerous good wishes from around the world a letter from Tsarskoye Selo (meaning "Tsar's village"; today known as Pushkin) near St Petersburg. Written in French and dated 1 October 1884 (= 13 October, Nestern European calendar), it was sent by Pauline Swertschkova (Pauline de Swertschkof), wife of the Russian painter Nikolai Swertschkov (Nicholas de Swertschkof, 1817-98), famed for his hunting subjects. Amongst other matters the letter reminded Johann of the summer he had spent in Pavlovsk and, in particular, of his romantic adventure with her friend Olga Smirnitskaya (1837-1920). She continued: "I hope you will not take it amiss that I include with my letter this little romance, 'Erste Liebe', whose words probably refer to the year [18]58". Pauline de Swertschkof enclosed the version of this romance for voice and piano, transcribed by herself.

Johann Strauss himself had referred to the composition in one of his letters to Olga Smirnitskaya, written on 22 November 1859. The 34-year-old Viennese 'Musikdirektor' informed his 22-year-old sweetheart: "My brother Josef knows your romance by heart, because I play it every day - every hour, and because it is the only piece I still play on the piano". When Johann wrote this letter he already guessed that a relationship with the capricious young Olga at his side was not to be; indeed, his friends at Pavlovsk had from the outset regarded a marriage between the couple as impossible. The Russian biographer of Johann Strauss, E. Meylich (published in 1975 by the Leningrad publisher "Musica"), wrote in his book: "Johann's friend in St Petersburg, August Leibrock, a Viennese who had been living in Russia for a long time, was shocked when he was informed by Strauss of his love for Olga. 'I just hope this summer romance doesn't end with a scandal', he kept saying. Leibrock knew the publisher Bernard, who printed Olga's romances on the instructions of her father, General Wassily Nikolaievitch Smirnitsky. As he was acquainted with the ways of St Petersburg society, Leibrock was convinced that Olga would not receive her parents¡¦ permission to marry Strauss. A conductor of his own orchestra, even one so talented and extraordinarily successful, would, not be her social equal. Olga's mother, Jewdokiya Akimowna, eventually made that

unequivocally clear to Strauss".

So ended the episode with Olga in the life of the Waltz King, Johann Strauss. Olga Smirnitskaya's romance "Erste Liebe" remains a poignant reminder of a starcrossed love affair that once burgeoned with such youthful passion beneath the white nights of St Petersburg. The copy of the romance enclosed with Pauline de Swertschkof's letter has been preserved in the collection of the Wiener Stadt- und Landesbibliothek, and the renowned Strauss musicologist and writer, Professor Dr Eberhard Würzl, has made a fair copy of the music and Cyrillic text. This has enabled Marilyn Hill Smith to sing Olga's "Erste Liebe" on this recording in its original Russian, in an orchestration made for this Marco Polo recording by Michael Rot. Professor Dr Würzl has observed that Olga's romance "not only proves that she was a highly talented composer but also that she had mastered the laws of harmony and part writing, which leads us to the conclusion that she must have received a thorough and practical musical training.' The five verses of the poem, written in iambic tetrameter by Nikolai Ogarjov, are given here in translation by Peter Eustace, from the German rendition of Elisabeth Würzl:

"In the dusk, the valley shimmered in blue light calmly beyond the brook, and the perfume of the rose and the jasmine wafted through your graden.

 

In the bushes on the bank, the nightingales amorously called to one other; I stood close to you, confused, dying of love.

 

In the abundance of breath my lips were mute and shy, but my heart was yearning for a declaration, for a squeeze of the hand.

 

Even though, in placeof this dream, life has given me a noisy, incessant whirl, my memory has faithfully retained the quiet image of beauty,

 

the garden, the evening, the rendezvous and the agitated yearning in my blood, the ardour and pounding of my heart, all this music of love!"

Besides being a genuine bonus for devotees of Vienna's Waltz King, Olga smirnitskaya's romance has a rightful place among a collection chronicling the life and music of Johann Strauss.

[5]        ¡§KLUG GRETELEIN¡¨. WALZER FÜR GESANG UND ORCHESTER

(¡§Clever little Gretel¡¨. Waltz for voice and orchestra) op. 462

 

On 18 April 1895 Vienna's influential Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde (Society of the Friends of Music) organised a festive evening to mark the 25th anniversary of the opening of its new building - the Musikverein - on the picturesque bank of the River Wien, which had not yet been covered over. The splendid red and yellow edifice, which today dominates the Karlsplatz, was designed by the Danish architect Theophil Hansen (1813-91), who was responsible also for the Vienna Parliament and Stock Exchange buildings. The Musikverein, which was soon to become the focus of musical life in the capital of the Habsburg Empire, had been dedicated to its purpose at the beginning of 1870. All three Strauss brothers had played for dancing at the inaugural ball in the Musikverein on 15 January 1870 and, moreover, performed in person their dedication pieces for the august Society - Johann, his waltz Freuet euch des Lebens (Enjoy your life) op. 340 (Volume 1 of this CD series); Josef, the polka française Künstler-Gruss (Artist's Greeting) op. 274; and Eduard, the polka-mazurka Eisblume (Frost-flower) op. 55.

For the silver jubilee celebrations of the Musikverein building on Thursday 18 April 1895 a truly festive evening was promised in its 'Golden Hall' (since 1939 the venue of the annual New Year's Day Concert of the Vienna Philharmonic), commencing with a "Festival Concert" followed by a "Festival Ball". The Strauss Orchestra was engaged, under Eduard Strauss. Sharing the programme with several soloists, they presented first a varied selection of classical and romantic music by Schubert, Weber, Verdi, Haydn, Jensen, Rückauf and Schumann. The concert closed with the première of a vocal waltz which Johann Strauss had composed for the occasion, with a text in the nature of a (somewhat risqué!) fairy tale provided by the librettist A.M. Willner (with whom Strauss later wrote the rather unsuccessful operetta Die Göttin der Vernunft, 1897). At the very last moment the 25-year-old soprano Paula Mark (1869-1956), a soloist with the Vienna Court Opera, was taken ill and the Viennese concert singer Olga von Türk-Rohn (1874-1940) instead offered her services as soloist.

The following day, Vienna's press reported in detail on the festival concert and ball in the Musikverein. The critic for the Fremden-Blatt (19.04.1895) drew particular attention to "the Pièce de résistance of the evening: Johann Strauss's latest waltz 'Klug Gretelein', which the maestro has dedicated to the Gesellschaft der Musikfrelmde". He continued: "The waltz is based on the text by A.M. Willner, which tells of Clever Little Gretel's lonely walk through the forest and of the robber there; however, the story turn out well, as the last two verses show [in translation]:

"Mother do not be afraid

The robber is here ¡K

I have tied him up;

he's outside the door!

Mother ... he is

my dearest beloved ...

Mother! ...

he has come to free me!"

"Mama, do you see,

that was done by the forest;

even though it's gloomy there,

the wind still blows so colds?

Now you'll see your little Gretel

as a forester's wife!

It was clever of me -

to go a one. ...

The waltz was sung by Frau Olga von Türk-Rohn, accompanied by the Strauss Orchestra conducted by Johann Strauss. The applause was so great that the piece had to be repeated". For its part, the Illustrirtes Wiener Extrablatt (19.04.1895) observed: "And 'Klug Gretelein'? This latest child of our Waltz King's muse is charming and unpretentious, popularly conceived and brilliantly instrumented. The waltz commences like a Ländler and is then built up effectively, the voices of mother and daughter - little Gretel is on the receiving end of a severe lecture from her mother about her trip into the forest - are cleverly kept apart; the individual themes have colour and the whole piece is full of appealing sounds. The composition had to be repeated at the tempestuous demands of the public, among whom we noticed Master of the Imperial Household Prince zu Hohenlohe, Chief Equerry Prince Liechtenstein, Representative Count Kielmansegg, theatre director baron von Bezecny, numerous writers and members of local theatres, captains of industry and musicians¡¨.

 

It is to be regretted that Johann Strauss's richly tuneful and haunting "Klug Gretelein" failed to find a permanent place in soprano repertoire, as his earlier waltz Frühlingsstimmen (op. 410) had done, and its few subsequent performances were given in the orchestral, rather than the vocal, version.

The publishing house of Emil Berté & Cie later brought out editions of the waltz for full orchestra, salon orchestra, wind band, solo piano and voice and piano. The title page illustration accompanying the first printings for both piano editions shows a scene from Willner's fairy tale text, and is by the artist and designer Franz von Bayros (actually Wilhelm Franz Josef, Marquis de Bayros), perhaps better known as the master of erotic book illustration. He was also the artist of the famous oil painting Ein Abend bei Johann Strauss (An Evening with Johann Strauss) which Johann's wife Adèle had commissioned as a gift for her husband's jubilee in 1894, and in which Bayros included his own self-portait. In summer 1895 Bayros (1866-1924) became engaged to Strauss's stepdaughter, Alice (1875-1945). The couple married the following February, but the union was unhappy and short-lived. So incensed was Adèle Strauss, Alice's mother, that she issued instructions for Bayros's (ace to be overpainted with a different likeness.

Although the printed editions of "Klug Gretelein" were published without dedication, the composer's manuscript score and text carries an inscription in his own hand: "Dedicated to the Gesellschaft der Musikfreundt, April 1895. Johann Strauss". Moreover, the manuscript, now housed in the archives of that Society, also reveals a fascinating departure from the published editions. Strauss himself evidently chose to christen his composition "Klug Gretelein", rather than "Klug Gretelein" - both titles may be translated as "Clever Little Gretel" - and this original title appears in his hand on the autograph full score. Clearly the work's published title did not appeal to the composer, for he amended his own copy of the edition for voice and piano by crossing out "ein" and substituting "Chen".

 

NOTE: The Vienna Court Opera soprano Paula Mark, whose voice promised a glorious career, abruptly retired in 1897 upon her marriage to Dr Edmund Neusser, a professor of medicine. Baroness Olga von Türk-Rohn had earlier retired from the operatic stage after her marriage to the State Attorney of Austria, Baron Camillo von Türk, but continued her concert career. After the First World War she moved permanently with her family to the United States of America, where she taught privately and at the Chicago College of Music, later becoming Dean of the vocal department of the Chicago Conservatory of Music. She held the Degree of Doctor of Music, and was decorated by Emperor Franz Josef of Austria, the Kings of Rumania and Bulgaria and the Shah of Persia.

[6]        FRISCH GEW AGT .GALOPP (Take a chance. Galop) (op.475)

Johann Strauss's final operetta, Die Göttin der Vernunft (The Goddess of Reason) attracted mixed reviews after its opening night at the Theater an der Wien on 13 March 1897. The first night critics were, however, unanimous in their condemnation of the libretto by Dr A.M. Willner (1859-1929) and Bernhard Buchbinder (1871-1922). The reporter for the Fremden-Blatt (14.03.1897) commented, for example: "After a few introductory beats [Strauss had not yet furnished his operetta with an overture], the curtain goes up. We find ourselves in the camp of the French army at Chalons in 1794, during Robespierre's reign of terror. The authors have not shied away from choosing this epoch, the suitability of which for the normal geniality of operetta is nevertheless questionable". Turning to Strauss's contribution, however, the critic continued: "But as far as the dance and its resounding prerequisites are concerned, all requirements have been taken into account; the pairs and groups are intertwined in a colourful enough fashion and the eternally young Waltz King shows himself still as the old magician who holds sway over the most charming rhythmically sparkling spirits".

 

The publishers of Die Göttin der Vernunft, Emil Berté & Cie, showed themselves to be remarkably dilatory in issuing the dance pieces assembled from the operetta's score. Three days after the premiere, on 16 March, they announced in the Fremden-Blatt that piano editions of three works (Heut' ist heut' Walzer op. 471, Nur nicht mucken! Polka française op. 472 and Wo uns're Fahne weht! Marsch op. 473) would be available "in about 8 days", and that other arrangements were in preparation. On 21 March a further advertisement in the Fremden-Blatt still suggested a publication date for these works "in about 8 days". Still later, on 14 May 1897, the law student Hans Reichert complained to Frau Adèle Strauss that Berté had informed him it would be a further "few weeks" before they expected to issue the piano score of Die Göttin der Vernunft. (The publishers were, however, rather swifter in issuing two potpourris of melodies from the operetta, and these sold 700 copies on the first day of sale, 16 March 1897.)

The eventual appearance on the market of piano scores for opp. 471-473 (together with an orchestral edition of op. 473) only raised further questions, for the piano editions announced a further three dance pieces compiled from themes in Die Göttin der Vernunft: Da nicken die Giebel. Polka-Mazurka (op. 474); Frisch gewagt. Galopp (op. 475) and the Die Göttin der Vernunft-Quadrille (op. 476). Yet despite advertising the availability of these latter three works, Emil Berté & Cie never published them. Since that time, Strauss researchers have sought in vain to establish the existence of these three missing dance pieces from the Waltz King's final stage offering. On the basis that Strauss had rapidly lost interest in Die Göttin der Vernunft, even while he was still composing it, it was widely believed that the publisher had been precipitous in his announcement and that opp. 474-476 had never come into being. Others more cautiously pointed to a verifiable performance of one of the missing works, the Die Göttin der Vernunft-Quadrille (op. 476), in January 1898.

It was left to the Viennese Kapellmeister Christian Pollack to make the exciting discovery that would overturn the majority verdict, for in 1994 he located the manuscript piano scores of all three "missing links" in private ownership in Switzerland. Each bore the initials "RR", indicating that they were the work of the Hungarian-born arranger and conductor Rudolf Raimann (1861-1913), who had earlier prepared the piano reduction of the Die Göttin der Vernunft score for publication. A remark in Raimann's hand at the conclusion of op. 474 stated that this work, at least, had been transcribed from a draft by Adolf Müller junior (1839-1901), the man who had conducted the premiere and subsequent performances of Johann Strauss's operetta.

The title of the exuberant galop Frisch gewagt derives from the challenge by the landowner Bonhomme to the Countess Mathilde Nevers in the Finale of Act 1 that she should escape courageously from danger: "Courage, nehmen Sie doch an. Nur frisch gewagt. " ('Take courage. Just take a chance'). The sources of the thematic material used for the Frisch gewagt. Galopp may be summarised as follows:

Introduction & themes 1A & 1B

- Act 3 lied (No. 14): Ernestine, "Über Felder über Hecken, en carrière halbtodt gehetzt, deml ich wurde, welcher Schrecken, ach, als Göttin abgesetzt"

Trio 2A & 2B

- Act 1 Chor (No. 2): Hussars' chorus, "Im Kriege ist das Leben voll Reiz und wunderschön" (NB: this melody also appears as theme 1A of Strauss's orchestral marc Wo uns're Fahne weht! op. 473. See Volume 41 of this CD series.)

           

This present recording of the galop Frisch gewagt has been arranged from the piano score by Kapellmeister Christian Pollack, who has referred extensively to the instrumentation of the incomplete manuscript full score of the operetta Die Göttin der Vernunft housed in the collection of the Wiener Stadt- und Landesbibliothek in Vienna. The galop's trio section, for example, is a note for note instrumental transcription from the operetta's full score, except that themes 2A and 2B have been transposed.

(NOTE: The above analysis of op.475 is based on the piano/vocal score of Die Göttin der Vernunft, published by Emil Berté & Cie in 1897.)

[7]        "WO DIE CITRONEN BLÜH'N!". WALZER FÜR GESANG UND ORCHESTER ('Where the Lemon-Trees blossom!' Waltz for voice and orchestra) op. 364

On 1 May 1874, barely a month after the successful première of his operetta Die Fledermaus at the Theater an der Wien, Johann Strauss left Vienna for a series of 21 guest concerts throughout Italy at the head of the Langenbach Orchestra (director: Julius Langenbach, 1823-86), which was based in Elberfeld in Germany. The Strauss Orchestra, under brother Eduard Strauss's direction, was committed to fulfilling engagements in Vienna, and so was unavailable for the tour. Before departing his native city, Johann carefully fashioned a unique gift for his Italian audiences in the shape of an exquisite orchestral waltz entitled Bella Italia (Beautiful Italy), which he performed in public for the first time on 9 May 1874 at the Teatro Regio in Turin. Upon returning to Austria, Johann renamed the waltz Wo die Citronen blïh'n! - a title he appropriated from the opening line of the famous poem in Goethe's novel, Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre (1795-96): "Kennst du das Land wo die Citronen blüh'n?". Under this new title the waltz was played for the first time by the Langenbach Orchestra, under Julius Langenbach's direction, at their concert in the Blumen-Säle der Gartenbaugesellschaft (Floral Halls of the Horticultural Society) in Vienna on 10 June 1874.

A day earlier, on 9 June 1874, Vienna's newspapers had announced that the successful run of Die Fledermaus at the Theater an der Wien had been interrupted owing to the illness of Irma Nittinger, the actress in the breeches rôle of Prince Orlofsky. The theatre was, in any case, preparing to transfer to its summer schedule and, on 12 June, gave the première of a hastily assembled improvisation comprising a sequence of scenes from pieces in the repertoire, prepared by the dramatist O.F. Berg (1833-86) and entitled "Erinnerungen an bessere Zeiten" (Memories of Better Times). The theatre's directrix, the popular soprano Marie Geistinger (1836-1903), appeared in various rôles, but the success of this evening was in large part due to the presence of a young comic singer who was making his debut at the Theater an der Wien: Alexander Girardi (1850-1918) by name, he was to become the most celebrated performer in Viennese operetta during the so-called 'Silver Age'.

Encouraged by the public response to the programme, Marie Geistinger sought to give greater prominence to her own contribution and commissioned her house conductor, Richard Genée (1823-95), to provide a text for Johann Strauss's waltz Wo die Citronen blüh'n! and to prepare a vocal arrangement of the piece. Genée completed his orchestral score on 18 June 1874. A little over a week later, on 27 June, the resulting work was added to the quodlibet "Erinnerungen an bessere Zeiten" for the first time, and Marie Geistinger's virtuoso performance of the number was rewarded with extraordinary applause. The reviewer for the Fremden-Blatt (28.06.1874) noted: "The theme of this waltz is conceived with the utmost ingenuity and the lyrical tone, which is treated with fragrant delicacy, dominates the performance of this concert piece. The musical number, which Fräulein Geistinger sang very tastefully and with especially successful treatment of the coloratura passages, was most enthusiastically received and the applause did not die down until the artiste repeated a part of the waltz". Die Presse (28.06.1874) welcomed the addition of "Wo die Citronen blüh'n!" to the quodlibet, adding: "This charmingly conceived and discreetly instrumented composition which, despite its Italian tenderness and its Mediterranean sentimentality, cannot entirely renounce its Viennese origins, was presented by Fräulein Geistinger in the best possible way, while she was able to embellish her performance by means of many refinements and piquant moments and was able to breathe a pleasant warmth into the somewhat anticlimactic ending".

 

At the beginning of July 1874 Friedrich Schreiber (formerly C.A. Spina), Strauss's publisher in Vienna who had issued the piano edition of the purely orchestral Wo die Citronen blüh'n! in early June, now rushed Richard Genée's arrangement of the waltz for voice and piano on to the market. The work was swiftly taken into the repertoires of Vienna's myriad street- singers (such as Minna Wagner, who first sang the waltz at the tavern 'Zum Straussl' in Leopoldstadt on 30 July 1874), and its popularity spread still further. Among more notable performances, the piece found its way into a production of Strauss's operetta Der Carneval in Ram (1873) at the Deutsches Theater in Budapest on 2 March 1875,while on 23 March 1912 Felix Weingartner conducted it in Vienna with the soprano Fräulein Forstel.

For this recording Christian Pollack has used the original version of the waltz in the arrangement by Richard Genée. In this form the work was first performed on 27 June 1874 at the Theater an der Wien.

[8]        NEVER CSARDAS FÜR ¡§DIE FLEDERMAUS¡¨

(New Csárdás for Die Fledermaus)

 

Twenty years after the world première of Johann Strauss's Die Fledermaus at the Theater an der Wien on 5 April 1874, a production of this most acclaimed of operettas was mounted at Vienna's prestigious k.k. Hof-Operntheater (Imperial-Royal Court Opera Theatre) on the Ringstrasse as part of the festivities to celebrate the Waltz King's 50th anniversary as conductor and composer. This lavish performance, which took place on the early afternoon of Sunday 28 October 1894, was organised by the Hof-Operntheater's own "Pensions-Institut" (pension fund), the proceeds from the production adding to the reserve from which financial support was paid to the Court Opera's artistes. For the benefit of these artistes and, of course, Johann Strauss, the directrix of the Theater an der Wien, Alexandrine von Schönerer (1850-1919), had transferred her performance rights for Die Fledermaus to the Hof-Operntheater. This procedure was repeated in subsequent years, and the Hof-Operntheater's pension fund was likewise to organise every performance of Die Fledermaus at the Court Opera until Whit Monday 1899.

In connection with a production of Strauss's 'Champagne Operetta' at the Court Opera, scheduled for early 1897, an item of interest appeared in the Fremden-Blatt newspaper of 14 November 1896. This article read: "A performance of the operetta 'Die Fledermaus' will shortly take place at the Hof-Operntheater for the benefit of the pension fund. It is proposed this time that Fräulein Renard will appear, even though neither the rôle of Rosalinde nor that of Adèle is vocally suitable for this singer. For this reason, plans are afoot to seek Johann Strauss's permission to transpose one of these rôles for Fräulein Renard. The involvement of Fräulein Renard in the revival of 'Die Fledermaus' at the Hof-Operntheater would offer a fresh attraction".

The performance of Die Fledermaus at the Court Opera was scheduled for 6 January 1897. Johann Strauss had held Marie Renard in high regard ever since she had created the rôle of Eva in his grand opera Ritter Pásmán (1892) so captivatingly: accordingly, at the end of 1896 the ever-obliging Strauss went so far as to compose an alternative csárdás for the mezzo-soprano to replace that sung by the character of Rosalinde in Act 2 of the operetta. In the event, Marie Renard (the stage-name of the Graz-born Marie Pölzl, 1864-1939) sang neither csárdás, but elected instead to interpolate the charming Eva-Walzer (Eva Waltz) from Ritter Pásmán. One might have expected the patience of even the generous Strauss to have been sorely tried by this display of artistic perversity, but directly after the matinée performance on 6 January 1897 he telegraphed Marie Renard: "According to what I hear, your performance - brilliant both in singing and acting - has been a sensation with the public. It was an enthusiastic, intoxicating success beyond compare. I congratulate you and give you my heartfelt thanks. Johann Strauss ".

 

The 'new' csárdás found its way into Strauss's cache of unused musical manuscripts and fragments. In May 1901 it unexpectedly resurfaced, when it was heard for the first time - truncated and arranged as a purely orchestral number - in the score of the composer's ballet Aschenbrödel (Cinderella), where it appears shortly before the final curtain. This present recording of the Neuer Csárdás is based on the original version composed for Marie Renard, and was published jointly in Vienna by Doblinger and Universal Edition for the first time in 1974 as an appendix in the Johann Strauss Gesamtausgabe [Johann Strauss Complete Edition] - Serie II, Band 3: Die Fledermaus.

 

[9]        "WENN DU EIN HERZIG LIEBCHEN HAST". LIED

('If you have a sweet beloved'. Song)

 

The Viennese audiences who regularly attended Eduard Strauss's Sunday concerts with the Strauss Orchestra in the Golden Hall of the Musikverein were accustomed to hearing novelties introduced into the programmes. On 14 December 1879, however, Eduard surprised the public at his promenade concert with a most unusual rarity when he performed the instrumental version of "Wenn du ein herzig Liebchen hast", the first song which his brother Johann had recently composed to words by the writer August Silberstein (1827-1900). It was to remain the only true German 'Lied' in the catalogue of Johann's work. A little later the melody and text of the song were published in Dr Joh. Nep. Vogl's Volks-Kalendar für das Schaltjahr 1880 (Verlag C. Fromme, Vienna), which had been founded by the poet Johann Nepomuk Vogl (1802-66) and was then being published by Silberstein. It was a simple, yet gentle song with the words:

"Wenn du ein herzig Liebchen hast, sei treu, sei treu!

Die rechte Zeit ist bald verpasst, dann kommt die Reu'!

Ein Herz das sich so ganz dir gab, hat Gott gesandt,

das bleibt noch dein bis über's Grab, hab fest Bestand!

hab fest Bestand, hab fest Bestand!"

 

"Far Lieb' ist kurz die Erdenfrist, merk fein! merk fein!

Drum auch ein Stern in Nacht sie ist, voll mildem Schein!

Und ob die Welt dich ganz verliess, o trag kein Leid!

Treu Lieben hebt zum Paradies, voll Seligkeit!

voll Seligkeit, voll Seligkeit!"

 

('If you have a sweet beloved, be faithful, be faithful!

The perfect time will soon be past, then comes regret!

A heart that gave itself to you so completely was sent by God,

It will remain yours beyond the grave, be constant!

Be constant, be constant'

'Our time on earth is short for love, take note! take note!

For it is like a star in the night, full of gentle glowing!

And even if the world abandons you totally, oh do not mourn!

To have faithfully will lift [you] to paradise, full of happiness!

full of happiness, full of happiness!')

Johann Strauss had plainly been inspired to write "Wenn du ein herzig Liebchen hast" by his relationship with Angelica ('Lili') Dittrich (1850-1919), who had become the composer's second wife on 28 May 1878. But, as things were to turn out, Johann's faithfulness was not in itself sufficient to allow Johann and Lili's marriage to flourish and survive. When Lili left him less than five years later the composer certainly endured "regret" for his unfaithful wife.

The instrumental version of "Wenn du ein herzig Liebchen hast", as performed (and probably arranged) by Eduard Strauss, has not survived; nor does the song appear in Eduard's own catalogue of the Strauss Orchestra's orchestral archive compiled after his retirement in March 1901. The Strauss musicologist, Dr Fritz Racek (1911-75), republished the song in the May/June 1975 edition of the Österreichische Musik Zeitschrift (Austrian Musical Journal, Volumes 5/6) exactly as it had appeared in the 1880 Volks-Kalendar, and Christian Pollack has used this as the basis of his orchestration of "Wenn du ein herzig Liebchen hast" for this Marco Polo recording. The work utterly refutes the claims of those detractors who loftily maintain that operetta composers such as Johann Strauss were incapable of conceiving other than easily accessible, trite and frivolous music.

[10]      "FRÜHLINGSSTIMMEN". WALZER FÜR GESANG UND ORCHESTER

(¡¥Voices of Spring¡¦. Waltz for voice and orchestra) op. 410

 

In the winter of 1882/83 Johann Strauss was invited to compose a vocal waltz for the Heidelberg-born coloratura soprano, Bianca Bianchi (1855-1947) - real name, Bertha Schwarz - who was at that time an acclaimed member of the Wiener Hofoperntheater (Vienna Court Opera Theatre). The waltz was to be given its first performance on 1 March 1883 at a grand matinée charity performance at the Theater an der Wien in aid of the '[Emperor] Franz Joseph and [Empress] Elisabeth Foundation for Indigent Austro-Hungarian Subjects in Leipzig'. Strauss, after his success with choral waltzes, was excited by the challenge of writing a waltz for solo voice. The librettist, Richard Genée (1823-95), with whom the composer was at that time collaborating on the operetta Eine Nacht in Venedig (1883), signified his willingness to provide the text to the waltz. In the event he was responsible also for the vocal setting of the new work, contributing significantly to the perfect interplay between voice and orchestra while the work was being written.

Late autumn 1882 saw Johann Strauss in Budapest, Vienna's sister city on the River Danube, for the first performance there of his operetta Der lustige Krieg (The Merry War, 1881). He was accompanied for the first time by Adèle Strauss (née Deutsch, 1856-1930), a young widow who was to become his third wife. According to contemporary reports, it was at one of the private soirées given in his honour during this visit that Johann gave an impromptu concert and played piano duets with another of the guests, Franz Liszt (1811-87). The two men had known each other well for more than thirty years (Strauss had dedicated his waltz Abschieds-Rufe op.179 to Liszt in January 1856) and had met on a number of occasions. It seems highly probable that it was this visit which provided the impetus for the writing of the waltz "Frühlingsstimmen", a work which is by no means a typical 'Violin waltz' but rather a waltz for the piano. The following February Strauss returned to Budapest to conduct another performance of Der lustige Krieg and, on 4 February, met Liszt again when the two men were among the guests at a soirée hosted by the Hungarian writer Gustav Tarnoczy. The Fremden-Blatt (7.02.1883) was one of several Viennese newspapers which carried a report, reprinted from the Hungarian press, of the improvised concert which took place on this evening. The entertainment began with Weber's Jubel Overture, played as a piano duet by Liszt and the lady of the house. "Strauss turned the pages. After this Strauss sat down at the piano and played his latest, as yet unpublished, compositions. [Another report refers specifically to the "Bianchi-Walzer"] After the concert there was a whist party, at which Liszt and Strauss sat opposite Messrs Moriz Wahlmann and Iganz Brüll; as always, here also luck smiled on the Piano King [= Liszt]. The soirée ended with dancing, for the commencement of which Strauss himself gave the signal by sitting at the piano and playing several of his waltzes. After that a gypsy band played until four o'clock in the morning".

 

Johann was justifiably pleased with his "Frühlingsstimmen Walzer" and in February he notified interested parties of its publication by Cranz. He even sent a copy to a member of the Austrian Imperial Household, the Archduke Wilhelm Franz Karl (1827-94) who, on 17 February, replied to "Dear Strauss!", thanking him for his "exquisitely successful concert waltz". He continued: "Yesterday evening I couldn't get enough of playing these captivating melodies and had to begin again and again da capo. Please number among the most ardent and oldest adherents of your musical creations your grateful Archduke Wilhelm".

 

Johann Strauss himself conducted the theatre orchestra at the premiere of "Frühlingsstimmen" on 1 March 1883 in the Theater an der Wien, and the performance was so well received by the audience that Bianca Bianchi had to repeat it immediately. The Neue Freie Presse (2.03.1883) highlighted Bianchi's "brilliant virtuosity" and said of the new work: "The composition, an almost uninterrupted sequence of coloratura, staccati and trills, is less a dance than a concert piece, which the coloratura singers of all languages will immediately take into their repertoire". The Fremden-Blatt (2.03.1883) similarly praised both soloist and composer: "The new composition begins in the style of the French vocal waltz, rather like the waltz from Le Roi l'a dit [The King has spoken], with a charming, finely chiselled theme, and attached to it are several sections which have more of the usual character of the Viennese, genuine Strauss waltzes, and which allow the opportunity for a full display of the singer's skills. Fräulein Bianchi, who was in excellent form and showed the full glory of her voice and her art, had to repeat the waltz, and shell she had sung it for the second time the applause was almost greater than before - the clearest Sign of a success". Other critics generally echoed these sentiments, although the Viennese journal Die Wacht an der Donau (1883, Vol. 3) dismissed the new work as "the most mediocre, too profusely coloratura, not very melodious spring waltz". For her part, Bianchi recognised the true value of "Frühlingsstimmen" and sang it just eight days later as an interpolated number in Delibes's opera, Le Roi l'a dit (1873), at the Vienna Court Opera. Later she also performed it there as an additional number in Rossini's Il Barbieri di Siviglia (1810). Thus "Frühlingsstimmen" became the first of Johann Strauss's own works to be heard at the Wiener Hofoper - not counting a performance on 11 December 1879 of his arrangement of musical reminiscences, entitled Alt- und Neu-Wien, which begins with a Haydn symphony!

[11]      DA NICKEN DIE GIEBEL. POLKA-MAZURKA

(The slumbering gables. Polka-mazurka) (op. 474)

 

Johann Strauss's fifteenth and final operetta, Die Göttin der Vernunft (The Goddess of Reason), received its première at Vienna's Theater an der Wien on 13 March 1897. The septuagenarian composer had grown increasingly unhappy about the libretto, set at the time of the French Revolution under Robespierre's regime, but was legally obliged to fulfil his part of the contract with the two librettists, Dr Alfred Maria Willner (1859-1929) and Bernhard Buchbinder (1871-1922).

Strauss's indifference to his final stage offering was matched only by that of his publishers, Emil Berté & Cie, whose dealings with the composer had throughout lacked the spark of enterprise. Similarly they showed little enthusiasm to issue the dance pieces which were customarily arranged from themes in 19th- and 20th-century operettas and which found a ready market privately and commercially. In the event, only the operetta's overture (Volume 49 of this CD series) and the rousing march Wo uns're Fahne weht! (op. 473, Volume 41) appeared in both piano and orchestral editions. The obligatory waltz (Heut' ist heut' op. 471, Volume 35) and a polka française (Nur nicht mucken! op. 472, Volume 44) were published only for piano. The covers of the piano editions also announced the availability of a further three dances based on melodies from the operetta: Da nicken die Giebel. Polka-Mazurka; Frisch gewagt. Galopp and the Göttin der Vernunft-Quadrille. Though advertised, this batch of dances nevertheless remained unpublished and, with the exception of the quadrille, unperformed.

It was generally presumed that if Johann had actually gone so far as to make these arrangements himself, they had probably perished at the hands of Eduard Strauss when he burned the Srauss Orchestra's musical archive in 1907. In 1994, however, the manuscript piano scores of the missing three dance pieces were discovered in private hands in Switzerland. While their exact provenance remains unknown, it is evident they somehow came into the possession of the Austrian conductor Felix Weingartner (1863-1942), who gifted them to the present owner. Each bears a pencilled opus number (474, 475 and 476 respectively) and is signed at the end "RR" - the initials of the arranger and conductor Rudolf Raimann (1861-1913), who was earlier commissioned by Emil Berté & Cie to prepare the piano reduction of the complete operetta Die Göttin der Vernunft for publication. Still more revealing are manuscript additions in Raimann's hand at the conclusion of the Da nicken die Giebel score, reading (in translation): "Vienna, 14 March 1898. Correct transcription and execution of the draft by A. Müller jun.". Although this statement appears only on the first of the three scores, the clear inference is that the actual selection and ordering of melodies for all three pieces was the work of Adolf Müller junior (1839-1901). The experienced Müller had already shown his abilities as an operetta composer in his own right with works such as Der Hofnarr (The Court Jester,1886), but he is chiefly remembered today as the arranger of Johann Strauss II's music for the pastiche operetta Wiener Blut (1899).

The polka-mazurka Da nicken die Giebel takes its title from the text of the Act 2 (No. 11) duet sung by the folk singer Ernestine and the caricature-artist Jacquelin: "Da nickten die Giebel, die Dächer, so traut, es grüssten die Thürme mit uraltem Haupt" ('The slumbering gables, the familiar roofs, the towers greeted us with their ancient heads'). The thematic content of op. 474 is drawn from the following sources in Die Göttin der Vernunft:

 

Theme 1A

-   Act 2 Solowalzer (No. 9): Bonhomme, to the words

    "Briefchen duftig, Liebesqual überall" (NB: This melody reappears in the Act 2 Zwischenactmusik)

 

Theme 1B

-   Act 1 Carmagnole (No. 12a): (op. 474) quotes exactly from accompaniment to Tempo di Valse section with the words

    "Es ist die Göttin der Vernunft", sung by Ernestine, Bonhomme and chorus. (NB: the melody of Theme 1B features earlier in the Act 1 Auftrittslied No. 7a, sung by Bonhomme to the same words, but with bars 4 and 8 modified)

 

Trio 2A

-    Act 2 Duett (No. 11): Ernestine and Jacquelin, to the words

    "Da nickten die Giebel, die Dächter, so traut"

 

Trio 2B

-    Act 1 Auftrittslied (No. 7a): 3/8 tempo section sung by Ernestine, "Mathematik, Dogmatik, Pragmatik nur Plunder". (NB: melody features in orchestral polka-mazurka in 3/4 time)

This present recording of the polka-mazurka Da nicken die Giebel has been arranged from the piano score by Kapellmeister Christian Pollack, who has referred extensively to the instrumentation of the incomplete manuscript full score of the operetta Die Göttin der Vernunft housed in the collection of the Wiener Stadt- und Landesbibliothek in Vienna. The polka's trio section, for example, is a note for note instrumental transcription from the operetta's full score, except that theme 2B has been transposed and rhythmically altered.

(NOTE: The above analysis of op. 474 is based on the piano / vocal score of Die Göttin der Vernunft, published by Emil Berté & Cie in 1897.)

[12]      ERSTER GEDANKE (First Thought) o.op.

On 10 August 1881, the following paragraph appeared in the Viennese Fremden-Blatt newspaper: "An interesting gift is published today. This bears the title "'Erster Gedanke' by Johann Strauss (Salmannsdorf; August 1831). Published by Frau Johann Strauss". It is the first waltz composed by Johann Strauss as a six-year-old boy. The profits from the publication of the waltz, whose reconstruction has been handled by Frau ['Lili'] Strauss, the composer's wife, are dedicated to the Savings and Support Association for Sick Children. At Schönau [-bei-Leobersdorf], where Johann Strauss has a beautiful property, there is a holiday colony for thirty children, which enjoys the benevolent and generous patronage of Frau Strauss. Frau Strauss now wishes to promote the aims of the association, of which she is a member, by devoting to it the net proceeds from the musical publication - and given the interest which should be awakened by this first stirring of artistic talent, which developed so brilliantly, the association can certainly expect a considerable success. The price of a copy of the waltz is twenty kreuzer". The following day's Fremden-Blatt was among those newspapers carrying advertisements for the waltz, which had been contracted out to the publishing house of Johann's former schoolfellow, the "Imperial-Royal Court Music Dealer" Gustav Lewy (1824-1901). The title page of Lewy's publication confirms the details given in the Fremden-Blatt: "'Erster Gedanke' by Johann Strauss (Salmannsdorf August 1831), edited by Frau Johann Strauss. The net proceeds are dedicated to the Savings and Support Association for Sick Children".

Close friends of the composer would have recognised the reference to Salmannsdorf on the printed copy of the waltz Erster Gedanke - published exactly 50 years after its composition. In the spring of 1826 the younger Johann's maternal grandfather, Josef Streim (1772-1837), had purchased House No. 9 at Salmannsdorf, a delightful little Viennese suburb on the edge of the Vienna Woods. In this idyllic property, complete with its own vineyard and lawn, mother Anna Strauss (1801-70) and her children spent carefree summer holidays up to and including summer 1834. According to family legend the future Waltz King used to tinkle around on the old 'table piano' (descended from the clavichord, this was a predecessor of the hammer piano) in this very house, and it was here that the six-year-old improvised his first waltz tune, which his mother proudly copied down. (This typical wine-grower's house still stands. Now re-numbered' Am Dreimarkstein No. 13', it bears on its wall a memorial tablet testifying, in translation from the original German verse: "Here a great musician/Who was known as Johann Strauss/Wrote his first waltz composition/And thus enriched this house".)

It is not known what became of Mother Anna's original transcription of this 36-bar piece, but it must be assumed that this was the source for the 1881 publication of the composition as Erster Gedanke. Oddly, the waltz as reproduced in Ludwig Eisenberg's 1894 biography, Johann Strauss. Ein Lebensbild, comprises just the first 20 bars and is, moreover, entitled Der erste Gedanke. Shortly before his death Johann Strauss sketched out Erster Gedanke for his nephew, Johann

Georg Simon (1887-1942), on the occasion of his eleventh birthday and appended the dedication: "For my dear nephew Hans Simon from his uncle Johann Strauss. Vienna, 6 July ¡¥98¡¨. This manuscript is now in the possession of Hans Simon's daughter, Hedwig Stadlen (born 1916). There must also have been an orchestral arrangement of Johann Strauss's first attempt at waltz composition, for on Wednesday 22 March 1882 at a charity festival and auction held in the Vienna Musikverein for the benefit of the newly-established holiday colonies for deprived Viennese children, Johann Strauss conducted the Strauss Orchestra in several items which included the first orchestral performances of his earliest waltz (Erster Gedanke) as well as his very latest (Kuss-Walzer op. 400, dedicated to his wife Lili). The net proceeds from this ten-hour long charity event were again donated to the Savings and Support Association for Sick Children. Lili Strauss (1850-1919), who separated from Johann just six months later, is even today referred to favourably in the chronicles of the parish of Schönau-bei-Leobersdorf, in Lower Austria, by virtue of her local charitable work.

Regrettably, the orchestral arrangement of Erster Gedanke which Johann conducted appears not to have survived, nor does it feature in the catalogue of the Strauss Orchestra's musical archive which Johann's brother, Eduard, prepared after his retirement in March 1901. For this Marco Polo recording, therefore, Michael Rot has made a new arrangement for orchestra from the piano version.

NOTE: One respected Strauss researcher, Professor Dr Norbert Linke of Duisburg University, hears in Erster Gedanke echoes of Strauss Father's Alexandra-Walzer op. 56, first performed at Dommayer's Casino on 10 July 1832. Professor Linke therefore concludes that the younger Johann cannot have improvised his own waltz until August 1832 "after he had eavesdropped on his father's rehearsals with his orchestra for the 'Alexandra-Walzer"'. (Musik erobert die Welt. Herold Verlag, Wien.1987). This remains, however, a personal view.

[13]      ODEON-WALZER o,op (Nachgelassenes Werk Nr.3)

(Odeon Waltz o.op. (Posthumous Work No.3))

 

In late autumn 1901, some eighteen months after the death of Johann Strauss II (1825-99), specialists in Viennese light music were taken by surprise when the Leipzig publishing house of Josef Weinberger made plans to issue a hitherto unknown dance piece for piano by the Waltz King. Subtitled "Nachgelassener Walzer Nr. 3" (Posthumous Waltz No. 3), it was called Jung-Wien (Young Vienna).

It seems that the waltz Jung-Wien was christened either by the publisher or, more probably, by the musical revue company from which it derived its name - the "Jung-Wiener Theater zum lieben Augustin". This gathering of youthful theatrical talent was the brainchild of Felix Salten, the pseudonym of the Hungarian-born author and journalist Siegmund Salzmann (1869-1945), whose book Bambi, eine Lebensgeschichte aus dem Walde (1922) was to provide the basis for Walt Disney's 1942 animated film, Bambi. The establishment of the "Jung-Wiener Theater" enterprise was a direct response by Vienna's musicians and literati to the Europe-wide recognition gained by the German "Bunte Theater" (Variety Theatre) - known more popularly by the name "Überbrettl" (Cabaret) - which had been opened in Berlin on 18 January 1901 by Ernst von Wolzogen (1855-1934) and his Viennese-born house conductor, Oscar Straus (1870-1954). Salten opened his "Jung-Wiener Theater zum lieben Augustin" in the refurbished Theater an der Wien on Saturday 16 November 1901. From the outset it was recognised as a "Montmarte of cabaret art" (Fremden-Blatt, 17.11.1901), and the sumptuous opening night's programme promised the first performance of what the Illustrirtes Wiener Extrablatt of 14 November 1901 announced as a "fully orchestrated waltz discovered in Johann Strauss's posthumous papers", the appropriately-entitled Jung-Wien. The same paper further described the piece as "the maestro's fina1 dance composition", while the Fremden-Blatt (17.11.1901) termed it a work "from the grave ... a waltz from the other world". In an otherwise detailed review of the previous evening's proceedings, the reporter for the Wiener Zeitung (17.11.1901) referred simply to the playing of "a waltz from the estate of Johann Strauss", followed by Ahasver, a "charming French shadow-play" (silhouettes by Henri Rivière, poetry and music by Georges Fragerolles) and the first performance in Vienna of Gounod's Funeral March of a Marionette (1873).

It remains in question whether Weinberger actually released the piano edition of Jung-Wien on to the market. In stark contrast to its usual practice, the publishing house placed no announcements for this new work in the advertising pages of Vienna's newspapers. Although at least one impression of Weinberger's printing of the waltz exists, this may have been merely a proof copy. Perhaps when Salten's "Jung-Wiener Theater" venture failed to catch the public imagination and was discontinued after a handful of poorly attended performances, the publisher also lost interest and opted not to publish the waltz.

Apart from Weinberger's (proof ?) copy for piano, an untitled orchestral full score copy of the waltz is preserved in the collection of the Wiener Stadt- und Landesbibliothek, Vienna. This score is bound in a single volume together with those of the three other posthumous Strauss waltzes, No.1 (Abschieds-Walzer), No. 2 (Ischler Walzer) and No. 4 (untitled). All four pieces are in the handwriting of Adolf Müller junior (1839-1901), the man responsible for arranging Strauss's music for the posthumous pastiche operetta Wiener Blut (1899). We may be certain that the Waltz King's widow, Frau Adèle Strauss (1856-1930), placed her husband's sketches and musical papers at Müller's disposal to enable him to prepare these four waltzes. At the end of his arrangement of Nachgelassener Walzer Nr. 3 Müller added the date he completed his task: 23 April 1901.

Nearly seven years after Müller concluded his work on Jung-Wien, the interest of Vienna's music lovers was fired by a notice in several newspapers, including the Fremden-Blatt, about a "Concert Academy" being given on 26 January 1908 at Ronacher's Establishment in Himmelpfortgasse by the Tonkünstler Orchestra under its guest conductor, Carl Michael Ziehrer (1843-1922). The announcement promised a feast of musical delights, adding: "In addition, Johann Strauss will be played, with the first performance of the Odeon-Walzer, conducted by Ziehrer". There was more to read on this subject among the advertisements of that day's Fremden-Blatt: "A new waltz by Johann Strauss, from his musical estate, 'Odeon-Walzer', was performed today at the Tonkünstler Orchestra's concert. The work is issued for piano and for large, small and salon orchestras by Josef Weinberger's publishing house". This publicity was repeated the following day, but with the wording slightly amended to read: "The brilliant 'Odeon-Walzer' by Johann Strauss (from his musical estate), which was greeted with tempestuous applause at the last Sunday concert by the Vienna Tonkünstler Orchestra, has just been issued by Weinberger's publishing house".

 

Regrettably, there appear to have been no press reviews about the concert on 26 January 1908, but the following month a further opportunity to perform the Odeon-Walzer presented itself. As early as 1902, the art-loving Princess Rosa Croy had formed a committee to raise funds for the erection of a permanent memorial to the Waltz King. Astonishingly, the task probed greater than anyone could have expected, and not until 1921 was Edmund Hellmer's now world-famous Denkmal (= memorial) unveiled in Vienna's Stadtpark. Between 1902 and 1921 various events were organised by the "Johann Strauss Denkmal Committee" to raise money, including an academy held in the Theater an der Wien on 18 February 1908, After Franz Lehár (1870-1948) had opened the proceedings by conducting Johann Strauss's Kaiser-Walzer (Emperor Waltz) op. 437, the audience was treated to a one-act play by Leo Feld entitled Der Götterliebling (The Gods' Favourite). What followed was described by the reporter for the Wiener Zeitung, in its evening edition of 19 February 1908: "Then a waltz from Johann Strauss's musical estate was heard, which was conducted by Kapellmeister Robert Stolz. Finally, the second act of the operetta 'Fledermaus' was performed by an excellent cast". The aforementioned waltz was identified in the review of the critic for the Fremden-Blatt (19.02.1908): "Later roe heard the first performance [sic] of the 'Odeon-Walzer' from the maestro's musical estate, melodically and rhythmically genunine Johann Strauss, conducted by Kapellmeister Stolz", The Graz-born Robert Stolz (1880-1975) had only recently taken up the post of principal conductor at the Theater an der Wien, and had made his debut there on 7 September 1907 with Lehar's operetta Die lustige Witwe (The Merry Widow, 1905). (Stolz remained devoted to the Waltz King's music throughout his life, and at the age of ninety-two commenced, but sadly never completed, a project to record the entire orchestral output of Johann Strauss II.)

Though doubtless new to Vienna's concert-going audiences of 1908, the Odeon-Walzer was not quite the novelty that the Weinberger publishing house would have had them believe. Indeed, the work was no more than a re-printing of Weinberger's earlier Jung-Wien (Nachgelassener Walzer Nr. 3), issued under a different title. The piano editions of both works even bore the same plate number. Regrettably, Weinberger's Leipzig offices were bombed out of existence during the war and no records survive detailing precisely how Jung-Wien came to be reborn as the Odeon-Walzer. However, sufficient information still exists elsewhere to permit the probable course of events to be determined. Alongside the copyright and publisher's details on the title page of the Odeon-Walzer can be found the following declarations (in translation): "Reserved for the INTERNATIONAL TALKING M4CHINE Co. M.B.H., Berlin-Weissensee. Special Edition ... The INTERNATIONAL TALKING MACHINE Co. m..b.H. owns exclusive rights to phonographic reproduction". Based in Weissensee, near Berlin, the International Talking Machine Company's claim to phonographic immortality was that, in 1904, it became the first firm to manufacture and issue double-sided discs. These were issued on its 'Odeon' label (and later also on the same company's 'Fonotipia' label), which boasted such recording artistes as Lilli Lehmann, Emmy Destinn, Leo Slezak and Frieda Hempel. That the International Talking Machine Co. clearly reached a joint promotional arrangement with Josef Weinberger late in 1907 (in which year the Odeon-Walzer was copyrighted) may be inferred from an announcement which appeared in the 15 January 1908 edition of the Talking Machine News: "The Odeon Waltz, the last composition of the late Johann Strauss, has recently been acquired by the Odeon Company, from the widow of the celebrated waltz-composer. For a limited period, a copy of this piece of [sheet] music will be presented to everyone purchasing, one Fonotipia Vocal record, or, two Fonotipia Band records, or, three Odeon records. The offer is liable to withdrawal without notice". Elsewhere it was noted that "the 'Odeon' Waltz will be unobtainable except ill this way". In April 1908 a recording of Strauss's Odeon Waltz appeared on one side of a double-sided British Odeon record issue, played by the London Orchestral Band. July of the same year saw the release of a longer version of the waltz, covering both sides of a French Odéon issue, performed by the Orchestre Odéon.

The illustrated title page adorning the sheet music of the Odeon-Walzer depicts a stormy coastland view with a classical Grecian setting, the principal feature of which is the Odeon (or Odeum), exactly as featured in the trademark of the International Talking Machine Co's record label. Numerous Odea were constructed in ancient Greece and Rome, the best preserved being the Odeon of Herodes Atticus, situated at the south-west angle of the Athenian Acropolis. It was constructed in the reign of Hadrian (76-138 A.D.) by Herodes Atticus (101-177 A.D.), and served as a place for recitation by rhapsodists as well as for musical performances and competitions.

[14]      ¡§EIN GSTANZL VOM TANZL¡¨ (¡¥A Verse for Dancing¡¦) o.op.

When Vienna's Waltz King finally married the widowed Adèle Strauss (née Deutsch,1856-1930) in Coburg on 15 August 1887, he also took on the responsibility for Adèle's only child from her brief marriage to a former railways official, Anton Strauss (1845-77), a daughter named Alice Elisabeth Katharina Maria (1875-1945). Johann Strauss, who was unrelated to Anton, fathered no children from his three marriages, but nonetheless doted upon Alice as if she were his own offspring. His paternal feelings for the child are suitably demonstrated in one of the many undated notes which he was accustomed to send up to Adèle's bedroom as he worked late into the night on his compositions: "Dearest Adèle. When I left you naturally I passed the dining room, heard Alice playing a splendid étude by Bach, walked for a moment  into the salon so as to hear better, and can assure you that I was today surprised by her playing. She didn't see me. The child has made colossal headway. Her touch, her ornamentation, her uniform tempo; in short, I thought that the piano teacher was herself magically playing through Alice. She was also playing with the greatest calm, which is of inestimable value. I am writing you this because I know that you will be very pleased by it, and of course I leave no stone unturned to afford you joy. Once more, good night to you, my sweet child. Jean".

On Saturday 20 January 1894, Johann and Adèle organised a house ball at their palatial home in Vienna's Igelgasse. (In autumn 1944 this building was almost totally destroyed in a bombing raid. A new edifice eventually arose on the site, the street was re-named after its most famous inhabitant and a marble plaque on the dwelling at No. 4 Johann ­Strauss-Gasse serves as a token reminder of the Waltz King's once-elegant city home.) Since Alice Strauss had been born on 23 January 1875, this festivity at the 'Strauss-Palais' doubled as an early celebration of her 19th birthday. For the occasion Johann Strauss set to music three short verses which had been written by his friend Ludwig ('Loisl') Dóczi (1845-1919), the Hungarian-born librettist of his unsuccessful grand opera Ritter Pásmán (1892):

"Von der Erd' is zum Himmel/Ein gewaltiger Schritt,/

Denn die Engel können singen,/Aber tanzen thun¡¦s nit.

 

Die Musi und die Sprach' werd¡¦n/Als göttlich verehrt,/

Aber der Tanz, der is menschlich/Und bleibt auf der Erd'.

 

Denn der Tanz is die Sprach' für/Zwei Herzen, die schlag'n,/

Für zwei Leut', die sich gem hab'n/Und defeb's nit sag'n."

The composer had the text and music printed privately, and distributed this unique 'ladies' gift' to the guests attending his house ball. On its decorative front cover the little piano/vocal composition bore the title "20.Jänner 1894", while on its reverse the text for the song, entitled by Dóczi in Viennese dialect "Ein Gstanzl vom Tanzl". The inside of the sheet was headed with Strauss's dedication: "Zum Geburtstage meiner lieben Tochter Alice" ('For the birthday of my dear daughter Alice'), followed by the music and vocal line and, finally, Strauss's facsimile signature. A week later, in its issue of Sunday 28 January 1894, the Neues Wiener Journal published the text and music of "Ein Gstanzl vom Tanzl" (omitting the dedication to Alice Strauss) under the banner heading "Wiener Volksmusik" (Viennese Popular Music).

In May 1894 Adele Strauss decided that the charming "Ein Gstanzl vom Tanzl" should be made available to an even wider public. On 19 and 20 May 1894, Princess Pauline Metternich (1836-1921) hosted a grand charity festival in the grounds of Vienna's Augarten Palace under the title "From 1794 to 1994: Vienna¡¦s Past, Present and Future!". This two-­day event attracted some 200,000 people. According to the Viennese press, Adèle (assisted at times by Alice and the architect Frau Hudetz) ran a marquee stall selling autographs by such luminaries as the composers Johannes Brahms (1833-97), Carl Goldmark (1830-1915) and Ruggiero Leoncavallo (1858-1919), writer and librettist Julius Bauer (1853-1941), the sculptor Viktor Tilgner (1844-96), actors Alexander Girardi (1850-1918), Franz Tewele (1841-1914) and Helene Odilon (1865-1939) and, of course, Johann Strauss. Indeed, she chose this occasion to sell copies of her husband's birthday gift to Alice, reprinted under the title "Gstanzl zum [sic] Tanzl vom Schani Strauss", described by the Wiener Tagblatt (20.05.1894) as having being "composed especially for this festival". Another unusual item for sale was a tambourine, with musical notation, signed by Strauss and Brahms, which read "Hofdienst bei A[dèle] S[trauss] / für Fugen: J. Brahms / für Walzer: Johann Strauss" ('Service at the court of A[dèle] S[trauss] / for fugues, J. Brahms / for waltzes, Johann Strauss').

More than a quarter of a century later, in 1925, an extended version of Johann's "Ein Gstanzl vom Tanzl" was issued by the Viennese publishing house of Josef Blaha. This version, augmented by a "Valse moderato" fragment taken from Strauss's posthumous papers, was arranged by Viktor Keldorfer (1873.1959), chorus master of the Wiener Männergesang-Verein (Vienna Men's Choral Association). Keldorfer also supplemented Ludwig Dóczi's original text with a final section in praise of Johann Strauss. For this present Marco Polo recording, however, Michael Rot has arranged Strauss's original version for voice and orchestra.

 

NOTES:

1)      For much of his life Johann Strauss was known to his family and friends either by the French version of Jonann, 'Jean', or by its Viennese form, 'Schani'.

 

2)      On 15 May 1996 Sotheby's, London, auctioned as Lot 503 an autograph sketchleaf containing the composer's early working of "Ein Gstanzl vom Tanzl". This manuscript comprises eight bars in B flat (the published version is in G and 38 bars long), the first four presenting an entirely different setting of Dóczi's text, while the second four are thematically identical to the published version.

[15]      ¡§DOLCI PIANTI¡¨. LIED (¡¥Sweet Tears¡¦. Song)

For his summer 1863 concert season at Pavlovsk, near St Petersburg, Johann was joined for the first time by Jetty Treffz (1818-78), the internationally acclaimed mezzo-soprano whom he had married on 27 August 1862 at St Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna. Although no longer at the peak of her career, Jetty (née Henrietta Carolina Josepha Chalupetzky) was still sufficiently admired to perform before the Russian Imperial Court during her husband's Russian engagement. While in Pavlovsk, Johann composed a song for Jetty entitled "Dolci pianti", and reported its composition to his Viennese publisher, Carl Haslinger, in the postscript of a letter he wrote in June 1863: "You'll be getting a little song from me which, fashioned in Verdi's style, is a disgrace".

 

On 8 July 1863 (= 26 June, Russian calendar), Jetty also promoted the work in a long letter she wrote to Carl Haslinger (1816-68), in which she also chatted about its origins: "My dear, dear Jeany-boy [= Johann] was seduced by me into writing a song for me in the Italian style, but good Italian style, and it came off so splendidly that it is my cheval de bataille [= current fad]. [Sigismund] Thalberg has also set the same text to music, only Jeany's composition is far, far better, more beautiful and more rewarding. It is written with cello and harp, and was sung exquisitely well (naturally!) by my humble self Would you like to have absolute ownership of this composition, possibly dedicated to the Emperor of all the Russias and graciously accepted by him? If so, I request that you inform Jeany immediately and specify how many hundreds you are prepared to give for it. The song is for mezzo-soprano and will sell as quickly as the first rolls after a famine".

 

In free translation from the imprecise Italian that has come down to us, the text of "Dólci pianti" reads: "I know not how to hold back my weeping, dearest, in saying goodbye to you, but this weeping of mine is not all sadness. It is a wonder to love, and regret and hope are a thousand sufferings gathered together at death".

Johann Strauss again mentioned the piece to Haslinger in a letter written from Pavlovsk on 16 August 1863: "The song will very shortly be ill your possession. I am playing it for the first time in my benefit concert on Tuesday (arranged for cello and harp) ...".

The first performance of the work in the version for cello and harp (with orchestral accompaniment) took place, as Johann announced, at his second benefit concert held at the Vauxhall Pavilion in Pavlovsk on 18 August 1863 (= 6 August, Russian calendar). Commenting on this event, Jetty wrote to Haslinger on 24 August (= 12 August) that "a new polka-mazurka (Invitation à la Polka Mazurka) caused a furore, and so did my song, which Johann has written for cello and harp and orchestra; it always has to be repeated and sounds absolutely delightful. This song, which has been turned into a romance, has been dedicated to his Excellency) Dr Karell, Ist physician in ordinary to the Tsar". (A copyist's manuscript of the romance, set for cello and piano, and dated 1869, has recently come to light in a private archive. This manuscript, interestingly entitled in the singular "Dolce pianto" (Sweet Tear) and sub-titled Die letzte Thräne (The Last Tear), bears the dedication: "To his Excellency) Herr Dr Karell, Physician in Ordinary to his Majesty the Tsar of Russia".)

 

In the event, Haslinger declined to publish either the song ("Dolci pianti") or its arrangement as a romance. (In contrast, Strauss's publisher in St Petersburg, A. Büttner, issued the work in separate editions for piano and for cello and piano.) The instrumental version for cello, harp and small orchestra, has already been featured on Volume 34 of this Marco Polo CD series. The vocal version survives in a few transcripts, although the original has been lost. This present recording is based on an arrangement (dedicated to Jetty Treffz) of the piece for cello and piano, which survived among the papers of Strauss's estate and is now housed in the collection of the Wiener Stadt- und Landesbibliothek in Vienna. The orchestration has been made for this recording by Michael Rot.

NOTE: Eighty-six years after its creation, the music of "Dolci pianti" was married to an entirely new text and interpolated into a revision of the Johann Strauss/Ernst Reiterer operetta Tausend und eine Nacht (1906). In this new production, first seen at the Vienna Volksoper on 10 November 1949, the song (entitled "Scheherazade") is to be heard in the prologue, sung by Prince Suleiman Ben Akbar (tenor).

[16]      NACHGELASSENER WALZER Nr. 4 (Posthumous Waltz No. 4)

When Johann Strauss II died in June 1899, his estate included a great amount of music and musical sketches in various stages of completion. His widow, Frau Adèle Strauss (1856-1930), was untiring in her efforts to ensure that much of this material was brought up to a condition where it could be performed and published. Indeed, her sometimes irritating habit of interfering in all matters regarding her late husband and his music was to earn her the unflattering sobriquet of "Die lustige Witwe" (The Annoying Widow), a pun on the title of Franz Lehár's operetta, Die lustige Witwe (The Merry Widow, 1905). One of the principal musicians to whom Frau Adèle entrusted Johann's musical papers was Adolf Müller junior (1839-1901), for many years conductor at the Theater an der Wien and the man responsible for arranging the Waltz King's melodies for the score of the pastiche operetta Wiener Blut (1899). Müller's further involvement in this direction, certainly also at Frau Adèle's bidding, may be determined from the existence of four Nachgelassene Walzer (posthumous waltzes), bound together and housed in the collection of the Wiener Stadt- und Landesbibliothek in Vienna. All four orchestral scores and their accompanying piano reductions are in the handwriting of Adolf Müller who, with the exception of the piano score of Nachgelassener Walzer Nr. 3, detailed very precisely the chronology of his work on these four waltzes. In the case of Nachgelassener Walzer Nr. 4, Müller began the piano reduction on 24 Apri11901, completing it two days later on 26 April. The full orchestral score, which particularises Müller's progress by the entry of dates throughout its length, was commenced on 25 April 1901 and completed on 28 April.

Three of these four posthumous waltzes were given titles when they were first performed: No. 1 is thus known as the Ischler Walzer (Ischl Waltz, see Volume 45 of this CD series), No. 2 is known as the Abschieds-Walzer (Farewell Waltz, Volume 39) and No. 3 was originally entitled Jung-Wien (Young Vienna) in 1901 before being re-named Odeon-Walzer (Volume 50) in 1907. Alone of the four, Nachgelassener Walzer Nr. 4 remained without a title. Moreover, in contrast to the first three posthumous waltzes, neither piano score nor orchestral parts for No. 4 appeared in print.

The first public performance of Nachgelassener Walzer Nr. 4 almost certainly took place on 23 October 1903, when the Austrian composer and theatre conductor Alexander Zemlinsky (1871-1942) conducted it as the opening item at a gala production of Strauss's operetta Der Zigeunerbaron (The Gypsy Baron) at Vienna's Theater an der Wien. The announcement in the Neue Freie Presse (23.10.1903) was typical of many which appeared in Vienna's newspapers at the time:

"Today's presentation at the Theater an der Wien, in which the 300th performance of 'Der Zigeunerbaron' will be celebrated in festive manner, will be prefaced by a hitherto unknown waltz from the estate of Johann Strauss. The management of the Theater an der Wien has addressed itself to Strauss's widow with the request that she make available for this performance an unknown piece of music by the maestro.

 

Frau Adèle Strauss has complied with this wish by handing over to the theatre a waltz which, up to now, has not been performed. Kapellmeister Zemlinsky has rehearsed the waltz, which will be played at the beginning of the performance. During the performance of the waltz the doors will remain closed, so that it will not be possible for latecomers to gain entry. The waltz will be repeated tomorrow [24.10.] and on Sunday [25.101], Johann Strauss's birthday".

The performance of this previously unknown waltz, together with the jubilee production of Der Zigeunerbaron in which Alexander Girardi (1850-1918) made a guest appearance as Zsupán - the rôle he had created at the operetta's première in 1885 - was widely reported in Vienna's press. The reviews which appeared in the Fremden-Blatt (24.10.1903) and the Neues Wiener Tagblatt (24.10.1903) are especially worth noting, and read respectively:

 

"At the beginning of the performance we heard something quite new:

a newly discovered waltz by Johann Strauss, which has only been recently unearthed among the artistic legacy of the maestro, and which Zemlinsky conducted with energy and fire. The waltz itself, which in many places resembles the 'Frühlingsstimmen Walzer' (Voices of Spring. Waltz op. 410] in character, was received with warm applause."

 

"The management had arranged a proscenium box for Johann Strauss's widow, and had also invited the composer Sidney Jones [1861-1946], currently residing in Vienna, to the performance. The evening began with the performance of a posthumous waltz by Johann Strauss. This piece of music bears the stamp of the maestro; it is a compelling invitation to the dance."

 

(The presence of the popular English theatre composer Sidney Jones is explained by the tremendous success he had enjoyed in Vienna with his musical play, The Geisha, which had received the first of several productions in the Austrian capital at the Carl- Theater on 16 October 1897, and had been followed by stagings of his musical comedies A Greek Slave and San Toy.)

Waltz 1A of the Nachgelassener Walzer Nr. 4 (foreshadowed in the introduction) will be familiar to many listeners as the refrain of the song "Draußen in Sievering" ('Outdoors in Sievering'), arranged by Oscar Stalla (1879-1953) for his 1934 pastiche operetta on lesser-known and unpublished melodies by Johann Strauss, Die Tänzerin Fanny Elssler (Fanny Elssler, the Dancer). A second orchestral score of the Nachgelassener Walzer Nr. 4, also preserved in the Wiener Stadt- und Landesbibliothek and apparently in Müller's handwriting (though unsigned and undated) bears pencilled notes on the title page, reading: "Fanny Elssler" and "Section used for II/9!", while another remark at the appropriate section of the score itself reads: "II/9 Falllly". These two additions, quite possibly written by Stalla himself, refer to the inclusion of the melody in Fanny's song "Draußen in Sievering" (No. 9) in Act 2 of the operetta. (Stalla found the other theme for this number in the trio section of Johann's Olga-Polka op. 196 Volume 32 of this CD series.) Devotees of Viennese operetta may also recognise the melody of Waltz 4A of the Nachgelassener Walzer Nr. 4, used by Stalla for Fanny's sublime Act 3 (No. 16) 'Musikalische Szene' - known also as the 'Letter Scene' - "Teuerste Freundin" ('Dearest friend') in Die Tänzerin Fanny Elssler.

Of more passing interest is the similarity between the opening four bars of Waltz 3A of Strauss's Gartenlaube-Walzer op. 461 (opening in G major) and Waltz 3A of the Nachgelassener Walzer Nr. 4 (opening in E flat major), characterised by the upper repeated note.

This Marco Polo world première recording of the Nachgelassener Walzer Nr. 4 utilises Adolf Müller's manuscript orchestral score, preserved in the Wiener Stadt-und Landesbibliothek.

Programme notes © 1996 Peter Kemp. The Johann Strauss Society of Great Britain.

The author is indebted to Professor Franz Mailer for his assistance In the preparation of these notes.

Marilyn Hill Smith

Marilyn Hill Smith was trained at the London Guildhall School of Music and Drama and made her début with English National Opera as Adele in Die Fledermaus. Other principal rôles followed, including those of Susanna in The Marriage of Figaro, Zerbinetta in Ariadne auf Naxos and the Chief of Police in the british première of Ligeti's Le Grand Macabre. Her career has brought engagements with Welsh National Opera, the Royal Opera, Covent Garden, Los Angeles, Canadian Opera and Scottish Opera. Her versatility is demonstrated in her repertoire that has ranged from Gilbert and Sullivan to Purcell, Rameau, Gluck and Monteverdi. In a busy international career she has appeared in major international festivals, with a series of recordings of repertoire from Rameau to Ivor Novello, Meyerbeer and Offenbach.

Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra (Bratislava)

The Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra (Bratislava), the oldest symphonic ensemble in Slovakia, was founded in 1929 at the instance of Milos Ruppeldt and Oskar Nedbal, prominent personalities in the sphere of music. Ondrej Lenárd was appointed its conductor in 1970 and in 1977 its conductor-in-chief, succeeded recently by Robert Stankovsky. The orchestra has given successful concerts both at home and abroad, in Germany, Russia, Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Spain, Italy, Great Britain, Hong Kong and Japan. For Marco Polo the orchestra has recorded works by Glazunov, Glière, Miaskovsky and other late romantic composers and film music of Honegger, Bliss, Ibert and Khachaturian as well as several volumes of the label's Johann Strauss Edition. Naxos recordings include symphonies and ballets by Tchaikovsky, and symphonies by Berlioz and Saint-Saëns.

Christian Pollack

The Austrian conductor Christian Pollack was born in Vienna and now lives in Lucerne. He studied violin, viola, organ and composition at the Vienna Academy of Music, followed by conducting studies with Hans Swarowsky and Sergiu Celibidache, making his début as a conductor in 1971 at the Regensburg Theatre. There followed engagements in Aachen, Klagenfurt and Vienna, before his appointment as principal conductor in Lucerne. His activities have included guest appearances with the Radio Orchestra of the Südwestfunk in Baden-Baden, the Nuremberg and Essen Operas and the Vienna Volksoper, and musicological research, particularly in the field of Viennese dance music and the works of the Strauss family.


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