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8.225213 - STRAUSS I, J.: Edition - Vol. 1
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Johann Strauss Snr • Edition • Vol

Johann Strauss Snr • Edition • Vol. 1

[1] Täuberln-Walzer (Little Doves Waltz), Op. 1

The first edition by Anton Diabelli & Co., of the Täuberln-Walzer announced on 10th February 1829 is not the first waltz composition in this form by Johann Strauss. Already on 21st November 1825, some four weeks after the birth of his first son, Johann, there was an advertisement for Johann Strauss père, member of the ensemble directed by Joseph Lanner, by the Anton Diabelli publishing company in the official Wiener Zeitung. In a series of new compositions was a line with his name: Johann Strauss: Seven Waltzes for the Pianoforte. The publisher offered no further information. The work appeared in print, but evidently no copy of it has been found.

As Johann Strauss was not yet known to the public, Anton Diabelli for the moment gave no further information, but kept the manuscript in his archive. This was not the only example of work by the busy young musician, who had joined the small group led by the violinist Joseph Lanner, not only as a viola-player but as a collaborator with Lanner, as his son Johann Strauss testified in 1887 in the foreword to a new edition of his father’s music. When the twenty-year-old Strauss had completed his service as a territorial reservist in the Vienna Hoch und Deutschmeister No.4 Regiment, he intensified his creative work and contributed to the repertoire of the ensemble by composing arrangements, some of operatic extracts. His son Johann was fully justified in writing: ‘My father was a musician by the grace of God’.

In 1826 Johann Strauss, with the Lanner ensemble, embarked on an engagement at the Zum schwarzen Bock (The Black Buck), in the lower Wieden, in the neighbourhood of the famous Karlskirche, a first-rate baroque building, and took part in the activities of the small band of musicians in balls and soirées, that is reunions. To the year 1826 he also dated the waltz that was issued as Opus 2, the Döblinger Reunion Waltz.

No other possible activities were yet open to him. When he applied for permission to marry Anna Streim, he called himself a music teacher and appears as such in the document of his marriage on 11th July 1825 at the bride’s parish church, the Schubert church of the suburb of Liechtenthal. He remained, however, with Lanner, and made his contribution so that the ensemble could be enlarged from twelve to fourteen musicians. Positions in Viennese musical life were given to experienced music directors, to Joseph Wilde, Michael Pamer and Johann Faistenberger. At the Zu den zwey Tauben (The Two Doves) restaurant in Count Traun’s house at the corner of Marokkaner-Gasse and the Haymarket, the orchestra, as the landlord Michael Deiss advertised in the Wiener Zeitung, offered varied music every day, whatever that may mean. Johann Strauss had for the time being not, as was long reported, parted from Lanner at the birth of his son Johann (Lanner’s Trennungs-Walzer (Parting Waltz), Op.19, is a wonderful work with attractive minor harmonies, but belongs to a quite different connection).

On 7th May 1827 the landlord notified his guests in an advertisement: From now on at the ‘Zwey Tauben’ every Wednesday and Saturday there will be music under the direction of Johann Strauss with a full ensemble of twelve musicians on wind and string instruments.

The first concert was on 11th May 1827. Whether on this occasion the waltz, later published as Opus 1 was played, cannot be verified, but possibly it was, since the autograph of the Täuberln-Walzer bears the date [1]826.† In that year there were changes among the Vienna music sellers and publishers. On 15th May Tobias Haslinger took over the direction of the traditional Imperial Music business in the Paternoster Gasse of the inner city, when his partner Sigmund Josef Steiner withdrew and gave up his concession. Born in Upper Austria, Tobias Haslinger, now owner of the Imperial Music business and publisher, angled at once for young talented Viennese composers, who hitherto had been dealt with by the publishers Cappi and Czerny, and particularly by Anton Diabelli, who came from Salzburg. When Haslinger in 1828 published the Wiener Carnevals-Walzer (Vienna Carnival Waltz) and the Kettenbrücke-Walzer, Diabelli reacted with energy. He took compositions by Johann Strauss from his archive and published first, after the Gesellschafts-Walzer, Op.5, on 19th February 1829, a waltz in E major by Johann Strauss to which he gave the title Täuberln-Walzer, referring to the composer’s début at the Zwey Tauben, and the numbering Opus 1, to show his position as the first publisher of the young music director. It was, however, as already explained, not the first composition by Johann Strauss in this form. It is not noted on the title-page of the piano edition, but in the advertisement of 19th February 1829 in the Wiener Zeitung, where it is described as a ‘new edition’.

For his contemporaries, and later too for his son Johann, the Täuberln-Walzer was regarded as the first work of Johann Strauss père. The work has some claim to this. The varied seven waltzes without an introduction and coda are rightly admired and frequently performed.

† Denkmäler der Tonkunst in Õsterreich, XXXV/2, Vol.68 (1960), Op.1, Revisionsbericht.

 

[2] Alpenkönig-Galopp (King of the Alps Galop), Op. 7 No. 1

On 22nd September 1828 Johann Strauss wrote quite awkwardly to his publisher Anton Diabelli:

Herr v. Diabelli!

Since from now on I am tied by a contract with Herr Haslinger in so far as to hand over to him each of my compositions, I cannot in the future be at your service, as I hereby notify you.† One can imagine how annoyed the ambitious Salzburg-born publisher Diabelli was, when he received this letter and Johann Strauss sent him back fourteen gulden that he had paid him for the next piece. The business with the dance melodies of Joseph Lanner and Johann Strauss was already profitable and he had been glad to have it for his publishing house. Diabelli reacted by publishing all the galops that Strauss had given him in an edition with the title Neueste Sammlung beliebter Galoppen für das Pianoforte (Newest Collection of Favourite Galops for the Pianoforte). This collection was advertised in the Wiener Zeitung on 15th December 1828. It included Johann Strauss’s Alpenkönig-Galopp, the Champagner-Galopp, the Chineser-Galopp, the Gesellschafts-Galopp and the Seufzer-Galopp (Sighs Galop), together with galops by Adolph and Wenzel Müller, Josef Hüttenbrenner, Fr. Fraus, F.X. Chotek and S. Leithner.

At the top of this group stood the relatively new Alpenkönig-Galopp which was simply put together from motifs from Wenzel Müller’s music for Ferdinand Raimund’s romantic-comic magic play Der Alpenkönig und der Menschenfeind (The King of the Alps and the Misanthropist). Ferdinand Raimund’s successful and immediately popular masterpiece was given for the first time on 17th October 1828 at the Leopoldstadt Theatre with the author in the rôle of the crank. The Alpenkönig-Galopp could still have been written before the première of the stage work. Since the young Strauss had been familiar with the Leopoldstadt Theatre from childhood, the music of the theatre Kapellmeister, Wenzel Müller, could have been known to him from the start of the rehearsals.

The galop, to which Diabelli assigned the number Opus 7, consists of the following motifs: No.1 Scene: So leb denn wohl, die stilles Haus (So farewell, quiet house), which, regardless, was changed into a leaping galop, and the Trio Ach wenn ich nur kein Mädchen wär (Ah, if only I were not a girl). The coda repeats the poor charcoal-burner’s ‘departure from the hut’.‡ No.2 Song: Wenn ich an meinen Franzel denk (When I think of my Franzie) and the cheeky request He, Mutter! gib was z’Essen her (Hey, mother, give me something to eat). The first performance could have taken place in late autumn 1828 at the Kettenbrücke.

† Vienna Stadt und Landesbibliothek, H.I.N.135.798 (excerpt)

‡ In one of his last compositions, Klänge aus der Raimundzeit (Sounds from the Time of Raimund), Op.479, Johann Strauss the younger quoted the departure from the hut (Abschied von der Hütte) in the original.

 

[3] Döblinger Réunion-Walzer (Döbling Reunion Waltz), Op. 2

The date of composition of the Döblinger Réunion Walzer, Op.2, issued by Anton Diabelli & Co. on 27th February 1827 is known. The composer Johann Strauss himself noted it on the music. The parts were prepared on 27th March 1826, the score on 3rd April. At the time the 23-year-old musician was in the still small ensemble led by Joseph Lanner. The arrangement, therefore, was for one flute, two clarinets, two horns, one trumpet, first and second violins, viola (three violins), bass and percussion. When the ensemble introduced the work in the salon of the widow Finger in the summer of 1826, it had the title of Döblinger Réunion Walzer.

The elegant salon was in Ober-Döbling, some way outside the city walls of Vienna, in the district of the later and today still extant Zögernitz Casino. The landlord Jacob Finger died in Ober-Döbling on 27th April 1826 and his widow determined to offer visitors a change by organizing reunions. The first reunion was announced for 27th June 1826, and others followed at the interval of a week, the eighth and last taking place on 16th August 1826. The participants are not named in the announcements, but on the occasion of an additional event on 29th July a ‘Vocal and Instrumental Academy’ is promised and the magician Basilio Calafatti from the Vienna Prater took part in a soirée on 14th August. All these events were for charity.

The instrumental programme of the ensemble of Joseph Lanner and his partner Johann Strauss has been disputed. In which of the eight reunions the waltz of Johann Strauss was introduced for the first time and who directed the first performance cannot be determined from the given dates. Possibly it was played at the first reunion on 27th June 1826.

Of course the waltz was later played everywhere that Lanner’s ensemble appeared at the time, therefore, perhaps, at the Schwarzen Bock (The Black Buck) on the Wieden. Johann Strauss had in no way parted from Lanner in 1825, as tradition has had it. The two musicians played together and contributed to the ensemble repertoire also in 1826.

 

 

Döblinger Réunion-Walzer, [Op. 2]

27.3.1826 dating of the parts (MH 4300)

3.4.1826 dating of the autograph score (MH 13051-c)

12.2.1827 Wiener Zeitung with Anton Diabelli, pft, 2 hands

23.10.1828 Wiener Zeitung with Anton Diabelli & Co., two violins and bass

 

[4] Alpenkönig-Galopp (King of the Alps Galop), Op. 7 No. 2

 

[5] Wiener-Carneval-Walzer (Vienna Carnival Waltz), Op. 3

The Wiener Carneval-Walzer was issued on 19th January 1828 by Tobias Haslinger and was intended as the composer’s contribution to the carnival of 1828, for which Johann Strauss appeared as leader of a group of musicians at the balls at the Kettenbrücke (Chain Bridge) near the Dianabad in Leopoldstadt, and as music director at the Weissen Schwan (The White Swan) in Rossau. His waltz must have been played for the first time in the latter establishment at the start of Carnival in 1828.

The work, however, is not so much a prelude to the Carnival activities in the ball-rooms of Vienna as a tribute to the composer Carl Maria von Weber, who had died in London on the night of 5th and 6th June. His sudden death came after he had conducted his opera Oberon or The Elf-King’s Oath at Covent Garden. Weber’s death was mourned in Vienna, as it was in England and Germany. On 5th September 1826 Mozart’s Requiem was performed in his memory at St Joseph’s in Laimgrube by musicians from the Imperial Opera. Strauss too envisaged his waltz as a tribute to Weber, since in the fourth waltz he quotes from the Ocean aria from Oberon, with Rezia’s words Mein Hüon, mein Gatte, die Retter, sie nah’n (My Hüon, my husband, the rescuers approach). The motif returns twice in the coda and serves to heighten the final stretta.

The waltz could already have been written in autumn 1826 and played for the first time by the Lanner ensemble with Johann Strauss at the Schwarzen Bock. The celebrated ball offered an opportunity for Lanner and Johann Strauss to honour the retirement of the once popular composer and music director Michael Pamer. Pamer had injured his hand and could only play the violin with three fingers. He himself announced that he would give a farewell performance on 19th October 1826 at the Schwarzen Bock with a Ländler that he could play with three fingers at the ball arranged by Strauss and Lanner. For this occasion the performance of a march by Joseph Lanner and a waltz by Johann Strauss was promised. That would have been the ideal opportunity for the performance of a waltz in memory of Weber.

Whether that is what happened is not established. There was no report of this event, which was actually Pamer’s farewell performance. Michael Pamer died on 4th September 1827 in an old Vienna house in Neustiftgasse. The house is marked by a memorial tablet.

The energetic publisher Tobias Haslinger decided otherwise. Johann Strauss’s work that he issued as Opus 3 on 19th January 1828, had the title Wiener Carneval-Walzer and was offered as a contribution to the 1828 carnival celebrations, in which the spirited dance doubtless also proved successful.

[6] Champagner-Galoppe (Champagne Galop), [Op. 8]

Johann Strauss’s Champagner-Galoppe, subsequently numbered Opus 8, was published by Anton Diabelli in the Neueste Sammlung beliebter Galoppen für das Pianoforte, advertised on 15th December 1828. He had probably had the work in his possession for some time, since Strauss had told him on 22nd September 1828 that he would put no new works at his disposal. The galop is spirited, but quite primitive in form. After the powerful four-bar motto, accompanied by the musicians with the words ‘Drink up! Drink up!’, two eight-bar sections are heard, which are repeated. The Trio is more varied and thoroughly original. In the coda the motto is followed by the first seven bars from No.1, then the quotation breaks off and the work fades away. Perhaps the champagne has sent the dancers to sleep. It is interesting that Johann Strauss, in his six-part Champagner-Walzer that was likewise issued by Anton Diabelli, repeated in the fifth part the motto and the first eight bars of the Champagner-Galoppe. That suggests that both works were written about the same time. That would have been quite conceivable in this period of bitter competition between the rival publishers Anton Diabelli and Tobias Haslinger.

How important the publication of dance music then was for Vienna publishers follows from the fact, among others, that the young Fryderyk Chopin, during his first stay in Vienna, was angry that the publication of dance music was more important to publishers than the issuing of symphonic works and new chamber music. On 1st December 1830 he wrote from Vienna to his family: " [The publisher] Joseph Czerny …cannot invest much in such works as cannot be played at the Sperl or the Römische Kaiser. Waltzes here are known as works! And Strauss and Lanner, who play dance music, as Kapellmeisters. That does not mean that everyone agrees; on the contrary almost everyone laughs at it, but for that reason only waltzes are printed."

 

[7] Kettenbrücke-Walzer (Chain Bridge Waltz), Op. 4

On 4th October 1825 the opening of the first chain bridge over the branch of the Danube flowing through the inner city, the Sophiebrücke, was celebrated. A number of newspapers gave full reports of the event. On 13th October 1825 the Zur Kettenbrücke inn was established in the vicinity of the new and much admired structure. Although a toll had to be paid to cross the Danube (today’s Danube canal) on the new chain bridge, the business of the landlord, Adam Däuling, flourished so well that on 7th July 1826 he was able to announce the extension of his premises with a garden and ball-room. Johann Strauss, who at the time was still playing in Lanner’s ensemble, was, at the latest for Carnival 1828, engaged as music director with his own musicians at the Kettenbrücke. Probably already at the start of the 1828 season he presented at a ball in the establishment his Kettenbrücke-Walzer which had been composed earlier, but the title first appeared in the catalogue of the enterprising publisher Tobias Haslinger on the occasion of its publication on 31st January 1828.

The waltz, the first masterpiece of Johann Strauss, then still only 24 years old, already the father of his sons Johann and Joseph, appeared in the possession of the publisher as the second work of the still not so well known music director. Haslinger was in fierce conflict with his competitors (for example Anton Diabelli) and exerted himself with brilliant foresight over the new work of the struggling young Viennese composer Johann Strauss and of Joseph Lanner, who similarly had his new compositions published by Haslinger. The composition of the Kettenbrücke-Walzer continued to corresponded to the complement of Lanner’s and Strauss’s ensembles: one flute, two clarinets, two horns, timpani, three violins and double bass. In his fourth published work, however, Johann Strauss succeeded in presenting an abundance of attractive nuances in melody and rhythm, which must have entranced his listeners, and which still entrances at every new performance.

Nothing was reported in the newspapers at the time of the work and its performance. The critics were not yet concerning themselves with dance music. Strauss, nevertheless, was aware of the quality of the Kettenbrücke-Walzer and offered it again to the public some eighteen years later, now in a full orchestral setting and winning its due enthusiastic appreciation.

 

[8] Seufzer Galoppe (Sighs Galop), [Op. 9]

The cheerful Seufzer-Galoppe was written during the years in which Lanner and Strauss, about three years his junior, for the moment competed with each other in an ensemble of a handful of musicians, each at the head of a small band. The Seufzer-Galoppe appeared in print on 15th December 1828 in a group of other galops, but there is no doubt that the dancers in Vienna knew the work earlier and had learned to appreciate it. Galops were, with the first waltzes of the two ‘musicians by the grace of God’, Lanner and Strauss, the favourite kinds of dance, and the public was all the more thrilled with the performance of this rapid dance.

In the ballrooms the fair-haired Lanner chased the couples through the room, for example with the galop Die Cavallerie zu Fusse (The Cavalry on Foot) and involved the public in the performance. The dark-haired Johann Strauss provided, with his first galops, exhausting dashes through the small rooms, with more heat than light from thousands of candles, when the giddy dancers ‘sighed’ with his musicians, as he had composed it, but also when the public in the gardens expressed their delight in laughter. He therefore offered two versions: in the first the musicians (and the public) sighed, the second time only the instruments (but also on this occasion those present could and should join in). A mad rush, as they said and still say in Vienna, took and takes place in any case.

It cannot nevertheless be proved that Johann Strauss himself composed and performed at any time with the musicians of the ensemble the galops that were published under the numbers Op.7-9 in the Neueste Sammlung beliebter Galoppen. Diabelli was in any case an imaginative publisher. He numbered the galops of Johann Strauss mentioned and it is not known if the young musician raised any objection.

 

[9] Gesellschafts-Walzer (Association’s Waltz), [Op. 5]

The balls during the Vienna Carnival season had a kind of order of precedence, according to their type. The most important establishments, for example the Imperial and Royal Redoutensäle, the Apollo-Saal, the Schwarzer Bock, Weisser Schwan and Mehlgrube, distinguished between Redouten (masked balls in the biedermeier period were only held in Redoutensäle), public balls to which everyone was admitted, and balls that were arranged by associations or well-known organizers and to which a fixed number of participants from the so-called beau monde had entry, as well as house balls at which Franz Schubert, for example, improvised his dance melodies at the piano.

The Gesellschafts-Walzer which the publisher Anton Diabelli announced in the Wiener Zeitung on 5th December 1827 had been written during the period of the young Johann Strauss’s service in Joseph Lanner’s small orchestra, and was given for the first time at one of the popular balls at the Zum weissen Schwan (The White Swan) in Rossau, after Johann Strauss’s appointment as music director there in autumn 1827. It consists of a four-bar introduction (Invitation), seven waltzes (hence the term in Vienna until about 1850/1870 of ‘Waltzes’ rather than ‘Waltz’), and a comprehensive coda. The sixth waltz also has a trio section. Johann Strauss, as the leader, stood at the head of the small band of musicians. As the ballroom at Zum weissen Schwan was small, however, and the number of guests at an association ball limited, the volume of sound was perfectly adequate. Two years later Johann Strauss was able to advance to larger ballrooms, when he was music director at the Sperl. In Rossau he succeeded the indisposed Michael Pamer. At the former he followed Joseph Lanner, who played at the Sperl in 1828, but in 1829, for the first time, had to give way to his friend Johann Strauss. The instrumentation corresponds to the ensemble of Joseph Lanner and the music director Johann Strauss at the beginning of his independent activity, one flute, two clarinets, two horns (timpani), first and second violins and bass.

 

[10] Alte und neue Tempête (Old and New Tempête) - Altdeutscher Postertanz (Old German Cushion Dance) - Altvater Galoppade (Old Time Galop) Altvater Marsch (Old Time March) and Sauvage

In the years after the Congress of Vienna of 1814-15 dance fashions in Vienna changed, to be sure only gradually, but conclusively. In balls of the biedermeier period fashions changed from German dances and minuets to waltzes, from écossaises, as may be found in the list of Schubert’s works, to galops. The favourite in the eighteenth century, the Langaus, sung, for example, in Wenzel Müller’s Waltz Aria, disappeared. It was felt to be too wild.

Johann Strauss’s composition with a group of old dances, presented for the first time at his benefit performance on 26th November 1827 at the Catherine Ball at the Weisser Schwan in Rossau, was in the manner of a farewell to a vanishing period. The work, which consists of six dances, appeared on 1st February 1828 from Tobias Haslinger, but remained without a successor.

The structure offers a colourful series of dances. No.1, Alte Tempête (four eight-bar sections, marked Presto) is followed by the rather slower Neue Tempête (four four-bar sections, marked Allegro). No.3 consists of two eight-bar sections with reprise, Allegro non troppo, with the addition ‘by Johann Strauss’, and No.4 is a quieter Altdeutscher Polstertanz, marked Allegro non troppo and an eight-bar waltz section in conclusion. The fourth part provides an energetic contrast with the Altvater Galoppade (twice four bars, Presto), which is to be repeated ‘as often as necessary’. The 3/8 Altvater Marsch is calm again (Andante), but with a final eight-bar Presto in 2/4. A wild Sauvage provides a conclusion (Allegro, four bars and eight bars in 4/4, alla breve), which ‘should be continued until it is clapped’. This is in the piano version.

The Neue Tempête was contributed by Johann Strauss himself, with the other dances taken from his predecessors, among others Michael Pamer. The melodies come at least in part from the eighteenth century. The Polstertanz (also Pölsterl-Tanz) came to the suburbs of Vienna from the country districts of Austria and from South Germany. It was originally a round dance with an established ritual. The girls threw little cushions at the feet of the men, but quickly lifted them up again. If a man managed to kneel down and hold onto it, the girl had to pay the forfeit of a kiss to have it back. In other districts a boy in the dance threw a cushion at the feet of the girl he had chosen and knelt down. If she picked it up, she accepted his courtship. Whether these customs were still current in Vienna in 1827 is not recorded. In private circles it is conceivable, but rather improbable in ballrooms. Be that as it may, there were no more old German Cushion Dances written. Johann Strauss’s Opus 10 was, after all a farewell.

 

[11] Wiener Launen-Walzer (Vienna Fancies Waltz), Op. 6

The waltz to which the publisher Anton Diabelli gave the number Opus 6 is the first of Johann Strauss’s works of which the first performance can be exactly dated. The Wiener Launen-Walzer was performed in the ballroom of the Weisser Schwan on 26th November 1827. This evening marked the beginning of the first Katharinen-Ball, the last dance celebration before the start of Advent, the time of contemplation and preparation for the Christian festival of Christmas, which Johann Strauss celebrated with a special composition. In Vienna people said ‘Catherine stops the dance’, and this saying was faithfully followed until well into the nineteenth century. At the Catherine Balls, for which Johann Strauss and also his sons Johann and Joseph were to compose many new dances, the men and women of Vienna once more took full pleasure in dancing. That held true for the particularly active enthusiasm for dancing in the years from 1820 to 1870 that was enjoyed particularly eagerly towards the end of Carnival and on St Catherine’s Day. Austria was not without reason praised by the poet Anton Wildgans as the country of ‘people of dance and fiddle’.

The first presentation of the young music director for one of the Catherine Balls directed and inspired by him, the waltz Wiener-Launen, was still relatively modest. The pleasures of waltzing particularly practised by the Danube can be characterized as Wiener Laune (Vienna Fancies). Strauss offered music that was rather trifling, but at the same time moving forward and exciting. He presented again, as in his Opus 5, a work in the future waltz form: introduction - waltzes - coda with repeat of the first waltz motif. This time, however, there were six short waltzes. The principal key of the composition, E flat major, which was regarded as particularly festive, dominates the work; only eight bars brought the later characteristic minor clouding over, ‘pain in joy’.

The work was more than a fancy. It was an artistic visiting card, with which Strauss introduced himself to his future followers and patrons.

[12] Schauer-Galopp (Shower Galop) (without Opus number)

According to Otto Schneider’s Tanzlexicon (Vienna-Mainz 1985) the energetic dance known as the galop came into fashion about the year 1825 and spread from North Germany to Austria. In Vienna, nevertheless, galops were first known rather earlier. Rapid dances in duple time were popular in the years after the Congress of Vienna. Lanner and Strauss presented their first galops from 1827. The order of publications and the opus numbers given to individual works of course tell us nothing of the respective dates of composition, since the publishers dealt with these popular dances at their own discretion.

The era of galops lasted in Vienna until about 1840, and they reached their high point in the late 1820s and early 1830s. Gradually the enthusiasm for galops slackened off, when it was learned that rapid dances were actually bad for the health. Consumption, known as the Vienna illness, took many young people there, particularly women and girls. As a result galops were generally first superseded by the calmer polka, imported to Vienna from Bohemia.

The high tide of galops in the years before and after 1830 had the consequence that not all new compositions were in a quick 2/4 time. From the legacy of Johann Strauss left to his sons Johann and Joseph are copies of some of these dances. The date of their first performance is not exactly certain, since there is no information on them. The orchestration most likely offers a hint at the date of composition. The instrumentation of the Schauer-Galopp (seven wind instruments, three violins and bass) corresponds somewhat to that of the Kettenbrücke-Walzer, Op.4, that was first performed in 1828. The Schauer-Galopp could come from the same period.

[13] Stelldichein-Galopp (Rendezvous Galopp) (without Opus number)

Most Viennese who witnessed the Congress of Vienna had grown up in war-time and were involved first in the Holy Roman Empire and then in the Austrian Empire. Europe had been plagued by a new Thirty Years War against France, which had first been decided by the defeat of the self-styled Emperor Napoleon I in the battle of nations at Leipzig and finally brought to an end by the Congress of Vienna.

In the euphoria that developed with the re-establishment of peace, pleasure in dancing in Vienna reached its high point. This could not express itself with particular liveliness in the generally small dance halls of the imperial city, but appeared first only in a grand palace for imposing or particular celebrations, the Apollosaal in Schottenfeld.

In the growing number of establishments from 1820 onwards with large ballrooms new dance fashions predominated. The classical Viennese dance from this time onwards, the waltz, assumed a dominant position, which it was able to maintain for the rest of the nineteenth century and to extend world wide. For the desired liveliness in ballrooms, however, there came a new dance, the galop. As the elegant but spirited waltz had displaced the minuet, so the galop eliminated the quick écossaise, which Schubert still improvised at the piano in the drawing-rooms of the bourgeoisie.

The number of galops that were offered by publishers was enormous. As a rule respective groups of galops were offered in an advertisement in the Wiener Zeitung. The names of famous symphonic composers were represented in these lists, but every music director and so many dilettantes were also included among the composers. The first galops of Lanner and Strauss were also offered in series of such works. Only when the superior quality of the dances of these two reformers of Viennese music of the nineteenth century became clear were individual editions of their new dances possible.

The enthusiasm of the public for galops continued until about 1840, when these energetic dances were replaced by the slower polka. The very quantity of galops had the consequence that not all of them could be published. This applied also to the work of Johann Strauss. Some galops were left only in manuscript and without opus number. Among these is the Stelldichein-Galopp, the autograph of which is in the music collection of the Vienna Stadt-und Landesbibliothek. When the work was composed and on which occasion it was first performed cannot be determined. An approximate dating is possible only through the orchestration. Strauss composed it for his orchestra, which at the time had twelve musicians and later grew to a complement of thirty to forty. The Stelldichein-Galopp was written for ten wind instruments, percussion, three violins and bass, which corresponds to the numbers employed by Strauss from 1829. No more precise information is possible.

English version by Keith Anderson


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