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8.550394 - HAYDN: String Quartets Op. 71, Apponyi Quartets
Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
Joseph Haydn was born in the village of Rohrau in 1732, the son of a wheelwright. Trained at the choir-school of St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna, he spent some years earning a living as best he could from teaching and playing the violin or keyboard, and was able to learn from the old musician Porpora, whose assistant he became. Haydn's first appointment was in 1759 as Kapellmeister to a Bohemian nobleman, Count von Morzin. This was followed in 1761 by employment as Vice-Kapellmeister to one of the richest men in the Empire, Prince Paul Anton Esterházy, succeeded on his death in 1762 by his brother Prince Nikolaus. On the death in 1766 of the elderly and somewhat obstructive Kapellmeister, Gregor Werner, Haydn succeeded to his position, to remain in the same employment for the rest of his life.
On the completion of the magnificent palace at Esterháza, in the Hungarian plains, under the new Prince, Haydn assumed command of an increased musical establishment. Here he had responsibility for the musical activities of the palace, which included the provision and direction of instrumental music, opera and theatre music, and music for the church. For his patron he provided a quantity of chamber music of all kinds, particularly for the Prince's own peculiar instrument, the baryton, a bowed string instrument with sympathetic strings that could also be plucked.
On the death of Prince Nikolaus in 1790, Haydn was able to accept an invitation to visit London, where he provided music for the concert season organized by the violinist-impresario Salomon. A second successful visit to London in 1794 and 1795 was followed by a return to duty with the Esterházy family, the new head of which had settled principally at the family property in Eisenstadt, where Haydn had started his career. Much of the year, however, was to be spent in Vienna, where Haydn passed his final years, dying in 1809, as the French armies of Napoleon approached the city yet again.
Haydn lived during the period of the 18th century that saw the development of instrumental music from the age of Bach and Handel to the era of the classical sonata, with its tripartite form, the basis of much instrumental composition. The string quartet itself, which came to represent classical music in its purest form, grew from a genre that was relatively insignificant, at least in its nomenclature, the Divertimento, into music of greater weight, substance and complexity, although Haydn, like any great master, knew well how to conceal the technical means by which he achieved his ends. The exact number of string quartets that Haydn wrote is not known, although he listed some 83. The earlier of these, often under the title Divertimento, proclaim their origin and purpose. The last quartet, Opus 103, started in 1803, remained unfinished.
The so-called Apponyi Quartets were written in 1793 and dedicated to a nobleman, Count Anton Georg Apponyi, who was a member of the circle dominated by Baron van Swieten, the Gesellschaft der Associirten, which fostered interest in the music of J. S. Bach and Handel. It was Apponyi who in 1795 invited Beethoven to try his hand at a string quartet, an attempt that had to wait a few years. Beethoven's Opus 18 quartets were published in 1801, with a dedication to Prince Lobkowitz.
The string quartet was traditionally, in Vienna, a private form of music, not designed for the concert hall, where such buildings existed. During Haydn's first visit to London, however, his Opus 64 quartets had been performed at the concerts organised for him by the German-born violinist Johann Peter Salomon. As Robbins Landon has pointed out in his magisterial work on the composer, the Apponyi Quartets were intended for public concert performance, and are, therefore, markedly different in character from other quartets by Haydn, Mozart or Beethoven. They were performed, it seems, during the 1794 London season by Salomon, with two members of the Dutch Dahmen family playing second violin and cello and the Italian Federigo Fiorillo playing viola.
The first Apponyi Quartet, Opus 71 No.1 in B flat major, opens strongly, the whole of the first movement based on the theme that follows. The Adagio is gently expressive, the return of the first theme much embellished, and the Minuet marked at first by the figure given to the cello. The quartet has a final movement thematically related to the first and third and of the expected brilliance, with an ending that brings its own surprise.
The Quartet in D major, Opus 71 No.2, opens with a movement of panache, with the briefest of central development sections. The first violin introduces the singing theme of the slow movement, which is again in ternary form and brings adventurous harmonic exploration, leading to a Minuet that has about it much of the Scherzo. The quartet ends with a movement that once more makes considerable demands on the first violin, testimony to Salomon's virtuosity.
The Opus 71 Quartets end with the third, in the key of E flat major. Here the first movement is largely monothematic, based on its first theme, and brings touches of the ominous as it progresses. The slow movement is essentially a series of variations. These remain based on the customary ternary form in music of remarkable ingenuity, although Haydn's ingenuity has all the appearance of ingenuousness. The Minuet happily bridges the change in mood to a contrapuntal and lively Finale.
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