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8.550395 - HAYDN: String Quartets Op. 54, Nos. 1- 3
Joseph Haydn (1732 -1809)
Joseph Haydn was born in the village of Rohrau in 1732, the son of a wheelwright. Trained at the choir-school of St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna, he spent some years earning a living as best he could from teaching and playing the violin or keyboard, and was able to learn from the old musician Porpora, whose assistant he became. Haydn's first appointment was in 1759 as Kapellmeister to a Bohemian nobleman, Count von Morzin. This was followed in 1761 by employment as Vice-Kapellmeister to one of the richest men in the Empire, Prince Paul Anton Esterhazy, succeeded after his death in 1762 by Prince Nikolaus. On the death in 1766 of the elderly and somewhat obstructive Kapellmeister, Gregor Werner, Haydn succeeded to his position, to remain in the same employment for the rest of his life.
On the completion of the magnificent palace at Esterházy, in the Hungarian plains, under Prince Nikolaus, Haydn assumed command of an increased musical establishment. Here he had responsibility for the musical activities of the palace, which included the provision and direction of instrumental music, opera and theatre music, and music for the church. For his patron he provided a quantity of chamber music of all kinds, particularly for the Prince's own peculiar instrument, the baryton.
On the death of Prince Nikolaus in 1790, Haydn was able to accept an invitation to visit London, where he provided music for the concert season organized by the violinist-impresario Salomon. A second successful visit to London in 1794 and 1795 was followed by a return to duty with the Esterházy family, the new head of which had settled principally at the family property in Eisenstadt, where Haydn had started his career. Much of the year, however, was to be spent in Vienna, where Haydn passed his final years, dying in 1809, as the French armies of Napoleon approached the city yet again.
Haydn lived during the period of the 18th century that saw the development of instrumental music from the age of Bach and Handel to the era of the classical sonata, with its tripartite form, the basis of much instrumental composition. The string quartet itself, which came to represent classical music in its purest form, grew from a genre that was relatively insignificant, at least in its nomenclature, the Divertimento, into music of greater weight, substance and complexity, although Haydn, like any great master, knew well how to conceal the technical means by which he achieved his ends. The exact number of string quartets that Haydn wrote is not known, although he listed some 83. The earlier of these, often under the title Divertimento, proclaim their origin and purpose.
The string quartets of Opus 54 open the first set of half a dozen quartets dedicated to the violinist Johann Tost, a man who led the second violins in Haydn's orchestra at Esterháza from 1783 until his departure for Paris in 1788, although he is mentioned as Music Director for the Seipp theatre company in Pressburg (the modern Bratislava) in the previous year. In Paris he sold for publication the six quartets of Opus 54 and Opus 55 and two new Haydn symphonies, transactions that seem to have caused some trouble. He had in any case, during his time at Esterháza, suggested a lucrative scheme for pirating compositions belonging to the Prince. He later returned to Vienna, and in 1790 married a housekeeper in the service of Prince Esterházy, becoming a prosperous cloth-merchant. Nine years later we hear of his approach to Spohr with the suggestion that he buy exclusive rights over his chamber music compositions for a period of three years, so that frequent performances, particularly of chamber music, would allow him entry to the best houses in Vienna, where Spohr's chamber music might be performed, and facilitate business contacts, when he travelled. Spohr agreed to the proposal and the sliding scale of fees offered, rising according to the number of instruments written for. The immediate result was two string quartets and the Nonet. Haydn dedicated to Tost a second set of six quartets, Opus 64, in 1790, and Mozart wrote for him his last two string quintets.
The three Opus 54 quartets were completed by the autumn of 1788, when Tost left for Paris. The first, in the key of G major, opens with a cheerful movement based on its initial theme played by the first violin. The C major Allegretto serves as a slow movement exploring the higher range of the first violin and leading to a characteristic Minuet and Trio and a rapid and varied Finale.
The second of the set, Opus 54 No.2 in C major, opens boldly with a movement that once again takes the first violin to unexpected heights. The C minor slow movement provides decorative embellishment for the first violin and leads directly, without a pause, to a Minuet that was well enough liked at Esterháza to be used for a musical clock made by the Esterháza librarian, Pater Primitivus Niemecz. The Trio is again in C minor. The quartet ends with an original movement that opens and closes with an Adagio, but includes a rapid section, interrupted by sudden pauses, typical of Haydn's liking for the unexpected.
Opus 54 No.3, in E major, has a dazzling first movement. The second movement Largo cantabile uses intricate and rapid ornamentation and is succeeded by a rhythmically marked Minuet and contrasting Trio. The final movement allows the second violin to announce the principal theme in a sonata-rondo structure, its recapitulation marked by Haydn's love of musical surprises.
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