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8.550786 - HAYDN: String Quartets, Op. 9, Nos. 1, 3 and 4
Joseph Haydn (1732 - 1809)
Joseph Haydn was born in the village of Rohrau in 1732, the son of a wheelwright. Trained at the choir-school of St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna, he spent some years earning a living as best he could from teaching and playing the violin or keyboard, and was able to learn from the old musician Porpora, whose assistant he became. Haydn's first appointment was in 1759 as Kapellmeister to a Bohemian nobleman, Count von Morzin. This was followed in 1761 by employment as Vice-Kapellmeister to one of the richest men in the Empire, Prince Paul Anton Esterházy, succeeded on his death in 1762 by his brother Prince Nikolaus. On the death in 1766 of the elderly and somewhat obstructive Kapellmeister, Gregor Werner, Haydn succeeded to his position, to remain in the same employment, nominally at least, for the rest of his life.
On the completion under the new Prince of the magnificent palace at Esterháza, built on the site of a former hunting-lodge set on the Hungarian plains, Haydn assumed command of an increased musical establishment. Here he had responsibility for the musical activities of the palace, which included the provision and direction of instrumental music, opera and theatre music, and music for the church. For his patron he provided a quantity of chamber music of all kinds, particularly for the Prince's own peculiar instrument, the baryton, a bowed string instrument with sympathetic strings that could also be plucked.
On the death of Prince Nikolaus in 1790, Haydn was able to accept an invitation to visit London, where he provided music for the concert season organized by the violinist-impresario Salomon. A second successful visit to London in 1794 and 1795 was followed by a return to duty with the Esterházy family, the new head of which had settled principally at the family property in Eisenstadt, where Haydn had started his career. Much of the year, however, was to be spent in Vienna, where Haydn passed his final years, dying in 1809, as the French armies of Napoleon approached the city yet again.
Haydn lived during the period of the 18th century that saw the development of instrumental music from the age of Bach and Handel to the era of the classical sonata, with its tripartite form, the basis of much instrumental composition. The string quartet itself, which came to represent classical music in its purest form, grew from a genre that was relatively insignificant, at least in its nomenclature, the Divertimento, into music of greater weight, substance and complexity, although Haydn, like any great master, knew well how to conceal the technical means by which he achieved his ends. The exact number of string quartets that Haydn wrote is not known, although he listed some 83. The earlier of these, often under the title Divertimento, proclaim their origin and purpose. The last quartet, Opus 103, started in 1803, remained unfinished.
The first of Haydn's string quartets, variously titled as Divertimenti, Cassations or Notturni, were written in the 1750s and early 1760s, before he entered the service of the Esterhazys. After a gap of several years he turned his attention again to the form at the end of the decade and between 1768 and 1770 wrote a set of six Divertimenti to which later French editions gave the number Opus 9. Two further sets of six followed almost at once, in 1771 and 1772. The quartets of Opus 9, planned, it seems, as a set, unlike the earlier quartets, are in contrasting keys. In all of them the Minuet is placed second rather than third, allowing a lightening of mood after the relatively slow opening movements of five of the set and before the following slow movements.
The fourth quartet of Opus 9, in D minor, was perhaps the first to be composed and is musically the most challenging of the set and had considerable influence over other composers, who were developing a form that Haydn seems to have first used in writing music for the instruments then available to him. The first movement of the D minor Quartet is one of rhythmic and motivic complexity. The D major Trio, framed by the repeated D minor Minuet, is not least remarkable for its omission of viola and cello, the double-stopping of the first violin accompanied by the second violin only. The B flat major Adagio makes demands on the first violin, as elsewhere allowing space for a possible cadenza. The second violin opens the Finale with a thematic element at once imitated by the first violin, providing a subject for contrapuntal treatment as the movement progresses.
The Quartet in C major, the first of Opus 9, opens with a movement marked Moderato, the principal theme, announced by the first violin, providing elements for development in the central section before its return in its second, embellished form in the final recapitulation. The Minuet, with its G minor Trio, is followed by an F major Adagio, an embellished aria for the first violin. The lively Finale again gives prominence to the first violin, the part designed here, as elsewhere for Luigi Tomasini first violinist and later concertmaster of the Esterhazy orchestra.
The Quartet in G major, the third of the set, again opens with a Moderato first movement in which the first violin, as in the first of the set, has similar passages of double stopping. The contrasting Minuet and Trio, in the same key, are succeeded by a C major Largo in which melodic interest is to some extent shared between the instruments of the quartet, which all at some point engage together in passages of semiquaver triplets. The work ends with a Finale of occasionally marked dynamic contrast.
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