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8.550972 - SHOSTAKOVICH: String Quartets Nos. 4, 6 and 7
Dmitri Shostakovich (1906 - 1975)
String Quartet No.4 in D Major, Op. 83
Dmitri Shostakovich was born in St. Petersburg in 1906, the son of an engineer. He had his first piano lessons from his mother when he was nine and showed such musical precocity that he was able at the age of thirteen to enter the Petrograd Conservatory, where he had piano lessons from Leonid Nikolayev and studied composition with the son-in-law of Rimsky-Korsakov, Maximilian Steinberg. He continued his studies through the difficult years of the civil war, positively encouraged by Glazunov, the director of the Conservatory, and helping to support his family, particularly after the death of his father in 1922, by working as a cinema pianist, in spite of his own indifferent health, weakened by the privations of the time. He completed his course as a pianist in 1923 and graduated in composition in 1925. His graduation work, the First Symphony, was performed in Leningrad in May 1926 and won considerable success, followed by performances in the years immediately following in Berlin and in Philadelphia. As a pianist he was proficient enough to win an honourable mention at the International Chopin Competition in Warsaw.
Shostakovich in his early career was closely involved with the theatre, and in particular with the Leningrad Working Youth Theatre, in musical collaboration in Meyerhold's Moscow production of Mayakovsky's The Flea and in film music, notably New Babylon. His opera The Nose, based on Gogol, was completed in 1928 and given its first concert performance in Leningrad in June 1929, when it provoked considerable hostility from the vociferous and increasingly powerful proponents of the cult of the Proletarian in music and the arts. The controversy aroused was a foretaste of difficulties to come. His ballet The Golden Age was staged without success in Leningrad in October 1930. Orchestral compositions of these years included a second and third symphony, each a tactful answer to politically motivated criticism. The first of these, To October, was written in response to a commission from the state authorities and was intended to mark the tenth anniversary of the Revolution. The Third Symphony, completed in 1929, marked another celebration of the regime and was subtitled The First of May.
In 1934 Shostakovich won acclaim for his opera Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District, based on a novella by the nineteenth century Russian writer Nikolay Leskov, and performed In Lemngrad and shortly afterwards, under the title Katerina Ismailova, in Moscow. Leskov's story deals with a bourgeois crime, the murder of her merchant husband by the heroine of the title, and the opera seemed at first thoroughly acceptable in political as well as musical terms. Its condemnation in Pravda in January 1936, apparently at the direct instigation of Stalin, was a significant and dangerous reverse, leading to the withdrawal from rehearsal that year of his Fourth Symphony and the composition the following year of a Fifth Symphony, described, in terms to which Shostakovich had no overt objection, as a Soviet artist's creative reply to justified criticism. Performed in Leningrad in November 1937, the symphony was warmly welcomed, allowing his reinstatement as one of the leading Russian composers of the time.
In 1941 Shostakovich received the Stalin prize for his Piano Quintet. In the same year Russia became involved in war, with Hitler's invasion of the country and the siege of Leningrad, commemorated by Shostakovich in his Seventh Symphony, a work he had begun under siege conditions and completed after his evacuation to Kuibyshev. Its broadcast performance in the devastated city of Leningrad to which it is dedicated and subsequent performances in allied countries had, as the authorities had intended, a strong effect on morale in Leningrad and in Russia, and aroused emotions of patriotic sympathy abroad.
Stricter cultural control enforced in the years following the end of the war led, in 1948, to a further explicit attack on Shostakovich, coupled now with Prokofiev, Miaskovsky and Khachaturian, all branded as formalists exhibiting anti-democratic tendencies. The official condemnation brought, of course, social and practical difficulties. The response of Shostakovich was to hold back certain of his compositions from public performance. His first Violin Concerto, written for David Oistrakh, was not performed until after the death of Stalin in 1953, when he returned to the symphony with his Tenth, which met a mixed reception when it was first performed in Leningrad in December 1953. His next two symphonies avoided perilous excursions into liberalisation, the first of them celebrating The Year 1905 and the fortieth anniversary of the October Revolution of 1917 in 1957, and the second The Year 1917, completed in 1961. In 1962 there came the first performance of the Thirteenth symphony, with its settings of controversial poems by Yev1ushenko, and a revival of the revised version of Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District, under the title Katerina Ismailova. The opera now proved once more acceptable.
The last dozen years of the life of Shostakovich, during which he suffered a continuing deterioration of health, brought intense activity as a composer, with a remarkable series of works, many of them striving for still further simplicity and lucidity of style. The remarkable Fourteenth symphony of 1969, settings of poems by Apollinaire, Lorca, Rilke and Küchelbecker, dedicated to his friend Benjamin Britten, was followed in 1971 by the last of the fifteen symphonies, a work of some ambiguity. The last of his fifteen string quartets was completed and performed in 1974 and his final composition, the Viola Sonata, in July 1975. He died on 9th August.
The career of Shostakovich must be seen against the political and cultural background of his time and country. Born in the year after Bloody Sunday, when peaceful demonstrators in St. Petersburg had been fired on by troops, Shostakovich had his musical education under the new Soviet regime. His own political sympathies have been questioned and there has been controversy particularly over the publication Testimony, The Memoirs of Dmitri Shostakovich, as related to and edited by Solomon Volkov, once accused of fabrication in his portrayal of the composer as a covert enemy of Bolshevism. The testimony of others and a recent scholarly survey of the life and work of Shostakovich suggest that the general tenor of Volkov's Testimony is true enough. Shostakovich belonged to a family of liberal tradition, whose sympathies would have lain with the demonstrators of 1905. Under Stalinism, however, whatever initial enthusiasm he may have felt for the new order would have evaporated with the attacks on artistic integrity and the menacing attempts to direct all creative expression to the aims of socialist realism. While writers and painters may express meaning more obviously, composers have a more ambiguous art, so that the meaning of music, if it has any meaning beyond itself, may generally be hidden. Shostakovich learned how to wear the necessary public mask that enabled him to survive the strictures of 1936 and 1948 without real sacrifice of artistic integrity.
The Fourth Quartet of Shostakovich belongs to the group of works of Jewish inspiration that were in part a reaction to the murder of Jews in German-occupied Europe and in part a protest against the now resurgent spirit of anti-Semitism apparent in Russia. At the same time the Jewish predicament seemed to reflect the situation of the citizens of the Soviet Union under Stalinist repression, while the Jewish spirit of irony matched very well his own attitude, expressed in his music. The new quartet was not taken out of the drawer until after the death of Stalin. The first movement opens with the two violins playing melodic lines of possible Jewish flavour over a sustained note from viola and cello. This is continued as viola and cello add to their sustained pedal notes a melodic element. Two contrasting elements add a secondary thematic element. The first material is briefly developed. The secondary material returns in modified rhythm and there is a brief coda. The F minor second movement starts as a romantic waltz, the melody passing from first violin to cello, later to be developed. The movement ends in a whispered F major. The muted third movement opens with the repeated ostinato of second violin and viola, to which the cello adds the first theme, then passed to the first violin. First violin, viola and cello state the second theme. The first theme returns, followed by a third is introduced by the inner instruments, with a relentless ostinato accompaniment from first violin and cello. The three thematic elements are used in the final coda. The movement is linked to the final Allegretto by a sustained note from the viola, which then introduces the movement. The first theme, of evident Jewish inspiration, is given by the first violin, leading to a second theme of similar provenance. These materials are developed and there is a recapitulation that starts with the emphatic repetition of the introductory theme, played by the whole quartet. The key of D major finally pevails, with a high sustained cello tonic harmonic and two lower D major chords from the other three instruments.
The Sixth Quartet of Shostakovich has been seen by some as a satire on the mediocre Stalinist bourgeoisie that still clung to its privileges after the thaw initiated by Khruschev. Certainly the quartet opens with deceptive simplicity, the violins offering the first theme in thirds over a repeated viola note, the key stressed by brief cello interjections. A second theme of ingenuous outline is introduced by the first violin. The first theme, now played by second violin and viola over a first violin ostinato, and without any help from the cello, opens the development, which leads to a dynamic climax, before the re-appearance of the first theme in recapitulation. The movement ends in a gentle cadence. The second movement shifts from the G major of the first to the key of E flat, the opening Minuet turning into a Waltz, proposed by viola and cello. The return of the first theme is succeeded by a third of pronounced chromatic character. The third movement, in B flat minor, is in the form of a passacaglia, the bass announced first alone by the cello. This idiosyncratic use of the old Baroque variation form leads directly to the last movement, after a form of cadence with which we are now familiar. Three slow introductory bars establish the tonality of G major, after which the first violin launches into the final Allegretto, its waltz-rhythm contradicted by the F sharp minor second subject in duple time. Motivic connection with the first movement is apparent, and the development includes a canonic version of the passacaglia bass, now played by cello, followed by viola. The quartet ends with the same form of cadence already heard at the end of the earlier movements.
The Seventh Quartet of Shostakovich is the shortest of all. It is in three movements and was written in 1960 and dedicated to the memory of the composer's first wife Nina, who had died in 1954. The music may, it is thought by some, conceal an autobiographical significance. A dance of exotic melodic contour is played by the first violin, to which is added the sparest of chordal accompaniments. The cello introduces a second theme in the key of E flat, to a semiquaver accompaniment of repeated notes from the inner parts. The first theme re-appears in altered rhythm and the cello re-introduces the second theme, leading to a short coda. The second violin offers a continuing accompaniment figuration in the slow movement, above which the first violin introduces a melody, to which muted viola and cello add glissandi. The same instruments open the middle section of the movement, accompanied by the second violin, while the viola briefly refers to the opening figuration in a short final section. The last movement is in two sections. The first, after an introduction played fortissimo on muted instruments, leads to a fugue, the subject announced by the viola, followed by second violin, first violin and cello in due order, leading to a climax in which themes from the second and first movements are heard. The plucked notes of the cello lead to the second section of the movement, an F sharp minor waltz, using aversion of the fugue subject, leading to a triple rhythm version of the first theme of the opening movement. Plucked notes are followed by a final bowed F sharp major chord, the sound of which is allowed to die away.
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