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8.553430 - HANDEL: Oboe Concertos Nos. 1- 3 / Suite in G Minor
George Frideric Handel (1685 - 1759)
Oboe Concertos Nos. 1 - 3
George Frideric Handel was born in Halle in 1685, the son of a well established barbersurgeon by his second wife. After matriculation in 1702 at Halle University and a brief period as organist at the Calvinist Church in the city, he moved to Hamburg in order to further a career in music, on which he was now decided. Employment at the opera, at first as a violinist and then as harpsichordist and composer was followed, in 1706, by travel to Italy, the source of the form his music had taken. Here, in Florence, Venice and Rome he made a name for himself, writing music in a number of genres, church music, opera, Italian oratorio, cantatas and instrumental works, while, in a keyboard contest with his contemporary Domenico Scarlatti, he was declared the better organist, with Scarlatti allowed to be a better harpsichordist. A meeting in Venice with members of the court of the Elector of Hanover led to Handel's appointment in 1710 as Kapellrneister to the Elector, while contact with the English ambassador was presumably instrumental in an immediate invitation to London for the newly established Italian opera. His return to Hanover the following year, after a short stay in Düsseldorf at the court of the Elector Palatine, lasted for some fifteen months, before a definitive return to London, where he now settled, occupied very largely with the Italian opera. It was when the commercial success of the opera began to decline, particularly with the establishment of two rival houses, that Handel turned his attention to anew form, English oratorio. This had an obvious appeal to a Protestant audience, avoiding, as it did, the problems of performance in a foreign language and the incongruities of plot that had become an inevitable concomitant of Italian opera seria. His last opera, Deidamia, was staged in London in 1741 and his last English oratorio, The Triumph of Time and Truth, an adaptation of a work he had written in Rome fifty years before, was given at Covent Garden in 1757 and 1758. Handel died in 1759, but his musical influence continued to dominate popular taste, doing much to eclipse the work of native composers.
As a practical musician, Handel borrowed extensively from his own earlier compositions and, as need arose, from the work of others, following the standard practice of the time His three Oboe Concerti have been variously designated The third of the series, the Concerto in G minor was first published, it seems, in Leipzig in 1863, when it was attributed to Handel and described as a work of 1703, although no other source is now known. In four movements, the concerto opens with a slow movement of characteristically dotted rhythm, a touch of that French style that the aging Corelli, working with Handel in Rome, had claimed to be beyond his comprehension. The second movement Allegro is followed by a Sarabande and a final dance movement thematically derived from the first movement.
Concerto No 2 in B flat major was published with the first in London in 1740 by Walsh in the fourth volume of his Select Harmony Whatever the original date of composition, the concerto certainly borrows extensively from overtures to two of the Chandos Anthems, written in 1717 and 1718 for James Brydges, created Duke of Chandos in the following year. The material from O come let us sing unto the Lord and I will magnify thee, O God is transposed and re-arranged to make what is, to all intents and purposes, a sonata da chiesa, following the established form of such church concertos with an emphatic opening slow movement, a second fugal Allegro, a third slower movement leading directly to a final Allegro in triple time. It has been suggested that the concerto was arranged by Handel for the Dutch oboist Jean Christian Kytch, who was employed by the Duke of Chandos in 1719 and 1720. It was the sight of Kytch's children begging, after the death of their father, that in 1738 inspired the establishment of the Fund for the Support of Decayed Musicians and their Families, a charity to which Handel contributed generously.
Concerto No 1 in B flat major is similar in form to the third and is generally thought to belong to the earlier period of Handel's life, written either in Hamburg or in Italy. It opens with an Adagio, leading to an Allegro, followed by a Siciliana and a final short Vivace, in the rhythm of a minuet, suggesting immediate kinship with the Concerto in G minor.
The Air and Rondo are arranged for oboe by the English oboist Evelyn Rothwell, and orchestrated by Anthony Camden. The Air uses the descending arpeggio figure, common, in one form or another, in Handel's instrumental music. It is followed by a lively Rondo, in which the principal theme frames contrasting episodes.
The Suite in G minor, attributed to Handel, has no certain source in its present form, derived, as it is, from an anonymous manuscript in the library of the Furstenberg family and here adapted by Anthony Camden. A solemn and very Handelian French Overture, framing the traditional livelier dance section, leads to a Gavotte and a pair of Bourrées played in alternation. A slow Sarabande offers the chance of a fine solo oboe aria and this is followed by a contrasting Rigaudon. The Passacaille follows the traditional Baroque dance-variation form and the Suite ends with a rapid Passepied.
The opera Ottone, Rè di Germania (Otho, King of Germany) was first staged at the King's Theatre, Haymarket, London, in 1723 and underwent various revisions and changes during the next ten years. There is some doubt as to the original form of the overture to the opera and it seems that the present three-movement work, with its opening French overture, fugal Allegro with the interplay of two oboes and final Gavotte may have had an earlier, independent existence. The Gavotte in particular enjoyed considerable contemporary popularity, described by Dr Bumey as 'the delight of all who could play, or hear it played, on every kind of instrument, from the organ to the salt-box'
City of London Sinfonia
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