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8.553707 - HOTTETERRE: Music for Flute, Vol. 1 - Premiere livre de pieces
Jacques Hotteterre (1673-1763)
Jacques Hotteterre, called le Romain, is one of the most illustrious figures in the history of the transverse flute. At the same time a distinguished performer, an enlightened teacher and a recognised composer, he brought to the Baroque flute full respectability through his Livres de pièces (Books of Pieces), L 'Art de Prélude (The Art of the Prelude) and his Principes de la Flûte (Principles of the Flute). There are various confusions relating to Jacques Hotteterre, to whom the invention of the three-section Baroque flute is often wrongly attributed, whereas he was only its populariser.
Member of a great family of instrument-makers originating from Couture-Boussey in Normandy, Hotteterre was born in Paris on 29th September 1673. His father, Martin (1648-1712), was then a well known master instrument-maker, inventor of the little chalumeau on the musette and very probably the creator of the first German flutes in three sections, used from 1681 in Lully's orchestra.
Jacques Hotteterre and his brother Jean, known as the Elder (? - 1720) had a good training and both learned the art of instrument-making. While the latter seems to have succeeded his father as a maker, the former preferred the ceremony of the court to the friendly atmosphere of the workshop. He followed his father as Grand Hautbois du Roi, a position that opened the way for him to the privileged royal musical establishment, the Chambre du Roi. From 1797 he began his musical career as a composer and teacher. It was in this year that he published his well known treatise Principes de la flûte traversière-ou d'Allemagne, de la flûte à bec ou flûte douce et du hautbois (Principles of the Transverse or German Flute, of the Recorder or Flauto Dolce and of the Oboe), which was re-issued many times up to 1765 and was translated into Flemish and even pirated in English.
In 1708 Hotteterre had published by Christophe Ballard his collection Pièces pour la flûte traversière et autres instruments avec la basse continue (Pieces for Transverse Flute and Other Instruments with Basso Continuo), announcing himself as Flûte de la Chambre du Roy (Flautist of the Royal Chamber), dedicating the work to the King. The preface is particularly eloquent:
TO THE KING, Sire, the favourable attention that YOUR MAJESTY has deigned to bestow on me since I had the honour of playing these Pieces in your presence has today inspired my boldness in presenting them to you. What happier success could I wish for them than that of filling some of those moments when the greatest King of the world wishes to escape from his glorious occupations. It is an advantage, SIRE, for which I am uniquely obliged to the extreme kindness of YOUR MAJESTY and it is to mark my very humble recognition of this that I take the liberty of dedicating to you these Pieces, flattering myself that my tribute will not be rejected, nor the protestation that I make of being all my life with zealous ardour and the deepest respect, SIRE, YOUR MAJESTY's very humble, very obedient and very faithful Servant and Subject HOTTETERRE.
The success was doubtless immediate, but better to understand the reason it is necessary to place the work in its musical context.
The first collection published for flutes, straight and transverse, was that of Marin Marais, in 1692, Pièces en trio pour les flûtes, violon et dessus de viole (Trio Pieces for Flutes, Violin and Treble Viol). Two years later, Michel de la Barre, also a musician of the Chambre du Roy, presented his Pièces en trio pour les violons, flûtes et hautbois (Trio Pieces for Violins, Flutes and Oboes) to the public, who seemed to appreciate them, as the Dutch edition in 1696, by Roger in Amsterdam, bears witness, and another French edition, again by Ballard, in 1707. A second collection of Pièces en trio was published in 1700 and enjoyed the same success as the first.
It was not until 1702 that there appeared a collection of Pièces pour la flûte traversière et la basse continue (Pieces for the Transverse Flute and Basso Continuo), again by Michel de la Barre, which marked the beginning of a style of writing specifically for a treble instrument and basso continuo.
When in 1708 the collection of Pièces pour la flûte traversière (Pieces for the Transverse Flute) of Jacques Hotteterre was published, flautists only had for their repertoire the suites by de La Barre. Their style, very similar, much inspired by the music of Lully, has a touch of the Italian, as the gigues L'ltalienne and La Pérousine show. Was this as the result of a journey to Rome? There is no document to support the suggestion that Hotteterre went to Italy, except his nickname Le Romain (The Roman), that he perhaps had to assume to avoid confusion with other members of his family, or, very simply, because he appreciated, more than others, Italian music, as the arrangements he made in 1721 of sonatas by Torelli and Valentino show.
This first collection won public favour, since a second edition, issued this time by Foucault, appeared in 1715. There is virtually no difference between the two editions except for the change of method of reproduction (the 1708 edition is printed and that of 1715 engraved):
1. No piece is added or omitted, Hotteterre has simply grouped his pieces into five suites (Foucault edition) instead of three (Ballard edition), which shows perhaps that the pieces of 1708 were interchangeable or a re-organization of the suite between the editions.
2. The composer has written a bass for the two pieces for two transverse flutes, Les Délices ou Le Fargis and the Rondeau le Champêtre.
3. A number of ornaments have been added in the second version of the collection, as the composer mentions: "augmented with several ornaments and a demonstration of the manner in which they are to be played".
An introduction in both editions that is extremely valuable for anyone who wants to restore as accurately as possible French music of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, is placed at the beginning. It contains precise remarks on a number of points. The first concerns the use of different instruments:
“Although these Pieces were composed for the Transverse Flute, they are nevertheless suitable for all Instruments that play the Treble, such as the Recorder, the Oboe, the Violin, the Treble Viol etc.”
This is usual, except for the harpsichord:
“Some can even be played on the keyboard as Pieces, that is to say the Treble in one hand and the Bass in the other.”
Further on in the preface Hotteterre shows how to play his suites on the recorder, demonstrating his lively interest in the instrument:
“As there are some that go down too low for the recorder, it will be necessary to have recourse to transposition when one wants to play them on that Instrument; one would transpose the key of D to F, of G a major third to B and E a minor third to G."
The rest of the introduction deals with the interpretation of the pieces in general and the manner of realising the ornaments:
“This is what seems to me necessary for the understanding of these Pieces; if one is willing to pay attention to these little remarks, I hope that one will be able to play these same Pieces properly, and many others, since the rules are general ones."
The reason why Holleterre explained so precisely the way of playing these pieces was doubtless due to the fact that very few flautists, apart from his colleagues and pupils, were able to interpret his music suitably (this fact is underlined by de La Barre in the introduction to his flute pieces of 1702). The first remark that he makes on the matter of style further confirms this suggestion:
"In matters concerning taste and correctness, I have marked as far as possible the ornaments in the most essential places."
The second point tackled by the composer is the way of realising the ornaments:
"It will be noticed that it is necessary to make lower vibrato (flattements) on all the long notes and these must be made as well as trills (tremblements) and mordents (battements), slower or faster, according to the tempo and character of the Pieces."
The Premier livre de pieces (First Book of Pieces) contains three suites of length varying from seven to twelve pieces. These are made according to the formal rules customary at the beginning of the eighteenth century and only the preludes, abstract in structure, are not in accordance with the usual dance practice.
Each of the pieces, except the preludes, has a title which may be:
1. The name of one of Holleterre's distinguished pupils or admirers: Le Duc d'Orléans, Le Comte de Brione, La Guimon, La Beaulieu, La Chauvet, Le Fargis.
2. The character of the piece: La Royalle, La Fidelle, L'lndiférente, Le Plaintif, Le Mignon
3. A picture L 'Atalante, La Cascade de Saint-Cloud, Le Départ, Le Lutin.
Each time the composer offers a reflection of society, while giving free reign to his musical imagination, reminding us of La Fontaine and La Bruyère. Some pieces in particular will serve to illustrate this:
L'Atalante is an allemande in which the ascending and descending scales wonderfully suggest the title: in Greek mythology Atalanta was the daughter of King lasos, who, not wishing to marry anyone who could not defeat her in running, overtook all who competed with her and killed them. Perhaps Hotteterre intended to describe under the characteristics of this woman a certain person at court. If so, this remains hidden.
The sarabande La Fidelle is absolutely faithful to the form of the dance and the style of the airs de cour of Lambert, with variations calling for great virtuosity. It offers a good example of the ornamentation of slow movements in French music at the beginning of the eighteenth century.
In the Cascade de Saint-Cloud, a real painting in music of the famous cascade of Saint-Cloud, which can still be seen today, the composer has amused himself by giving the impression of a perpetual falling through the use of wide intervals. The basso continuo part, far from fulfilling its simple role of accompaniment joins in the descriptive phrases of the treble.
The Rondeau, Le Plaintif, like the Sarabande La Fidelle, is a reflection of the airs de cour, with all their principal characteristics, languor, fluidity and difficulty. The first hesitant and plaintive phrase is repeated in the rondeau and ornamented, without, however, losing its repetitive and languid character. It is for the player to adjust his playing to the character of the piece and to give this rondeau all the gentle tenderness recommended by the composer. The adjective 'plaintive' is one of those most often used to describe the sound of the flute, doubtless the justification for this title.
As for L'Italienne this is a gigue which, as its name shows, is to be played fast. Of English origin, this dance appeared in France in the period of Louis XIV and is written in two ways, the French in a stately 6/4 and the Italian in fast tempo compound-rhythm bars. Hotteterre's has all the characteristics of the Italian gigue, flexible, lively and making use of the rhythmic cells usual in this form.
When Hotteterre died in 1763 the transverse flute of his youth had developed but it certainly owes a great deal to him. Thanks to his treatises, he remains more than just a name in the history of flute literature, given further distinction by his successors Blavet and Buttardin.
Recorded at the Church of Saint Hyppolite,
Le Tarn, between 13th and 17th November 1995 (mean
temperature 12 C, high humidity).
Philippe Allain-Dupré (Baroque
Yasuko Uyama-Bouvard (harpsichord)
Philippe Pierlot (viola da gamba)
Vincent Dumestre (theorbo)
Jean-Francois Bougès (second flute, Le
Fargis and Le Champêtre)
Phjljppe Allain-Dupré: Note on the Instruments
The answer could be to take a later instrument, in four sections, dating from 1730 or 1740, to play this music published in 1708 and 1715. It is the solution reached by the majority of present Baroque flautists, who play music composed before 1750 on copies of classical flutes by G.A.Rottenburgh or C.A.Gresner, dating clearly from at least 1760. Their decision is understandable, for the more recent the instrument, the less damaged it is by time and the more it benefits from this idea of "progress" in instrument-making.
I have chosen rather to go in the opposite direction. The only flute in three sections that I have found satisfactory in the course of my researches is preserved with the Franciscans in Assisi. This is clearly a flute of the end of the seventeenth century, with its large bore, varying from 192mm to 15mm and its bands resembling those of the recorder. This is also the only instrument I know that has a pitch of A=392Hz. Flutes by Rippert, Naust and Chevalier, and the Hotteterre flute in Graz have a higher pitch of 400Hz For this recording I have used two copies, one in box-wood and one in ebony, taken from this anonymous flute preserved in the library of the Franciscans in Assisi.
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