About this Recording
8.554825 - BACH, J.S.: Christmas Cantatas
English 

Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)

Cantatas Nos. 36, 132 and 61

Born in Eisenach in 1685 into a continuing dynasty of musicians, Johann Sebastian Bach was orphaned in 1695 and went, with his older brother Jacob, to live with their elder brother Johann Christoph Bach, organist at Ohrdruf. He continued his schooling there until 1700, acquiring his early skill as an organist and, it may be presumed, as an expert on the construction of the instrument. From Ohrdruf he moved to Lüneburg as a chorister, employment that allowed his continuing education. After employment as a musician at the court in Weimar in 1703, he next held positions as an organist at Arnstadt, then at Mühlhausen and then again at Weimar, now as court organist. He remained in Weimar until 1717, holding the position of Konzertmeister from 1714 and moving in 1717 to Cöthen as Court Kapellmeister to the young Prince Leopold of Anhalt -Cöthen. He only left after the Prince's marriage to a woman without musical interests made a position that had been very congenial to him now very much less so. In 1723 he took what seemed to him socially inferior employment as Cantor at the Choir School of St Thomas in Leipzig, with responsibility for the training of choristers and the provision of music for the principal city churches. He remained in Leipzig for the rest of his life, but was able to broaden his musical activities when, in 1729, he also took over the direction of the University collegium musicum, founded earlier in the century by Telemann. Whereas in his earlier years there had been need for organ music, Cöthen, with its Pietist court, called principally for secular music. Leipzig demanded a quantity of church music, largely satisfied in the first years that Bach was there, but the collegium musicum itself allowed a return to the secular instrumental music that had been a principal preoccupation of the Cöthen years.

In Leipzig there was a requirement for sixty cantatas in the church year, covering Sundays, except in Lent and part of Advent, and major feast days. For his first cycle, for 1723-4, Bach had recourse on occasions to earlier work. The second cycle, for 1724-5, brought the development of the unified chorale cantata, while the third cycle, written between 1725 and 1727, uses a variety of forms. In these first years in Leipzig he is said to have completed five cycles of cantatas, but of these a number is now lost. Later cantatas were presumably written to fill gaps in the complete annual cycles and there were, of course, occasions when Bach used the work of other composers in the course of his duties. In the Lutheran Hauptgottesdienst (principal service) in Leipzig, which started at seven in the morning and would finish at eleven, the cantata was the main musical item, generally following the Credo and preceding the hour-long sermon. The text would be related to the gospel reading of the day.

The cantata Schwingt freudig euch empor, BWV 36, was written for the first Sunday of Advent 1731 and is an arrangement of a secular birthday cantata of 1725, with an original text by Christian Friedrich Henrici, known as Picander, adapted by him or by Bach. The extant sources offer two versions, the earlier copied by Bach's pupil Johann Philipp Kirnberger and here recorded. The cantata is scored for oboe d'amore, strings and continuo, with four voices, all used in the opening movement. Here the voices often enter in imitation one of the other, while the instruments provide an introduction and a series of ritornello passages in which the oboe and violin are prominent. The second movement, Die Liebe zieht, is set for tenor with oboe d'amore obbligato and continuo in the form of a B minor da capo aria, the first of the three sections repeated to frame a central section in a contrasted key. The D major bass aria, Sei mir willkommen, is set with strings and continuo and the fo1lowing A major da capo soprano aria, Auch mit gedämpften, schwachen Stimmen, has a solo violin obbligato in 12/8 metre. The cantata ends with the chorale verse Wie bin ich doch so herzlich froh.

Bereitet die Wege, bereitet die Bahn, BWV 132, is an earlier work, written during Bach's period of service in Weimar for the fourth Sunday in Advent in 1715. It is scored for oboe, strings and continuo, with four voices and consists of three arias, separated by two recitatives. The text is by Salomo Franck, employed at the Weimar court as a librarian and secretary. The lively opening A major da capo aria, Bereitet die Wege, is for soprano and in Italian style. A tenor recitative leads to the E major bass aria Wer bist du, with obbligato solo ce1lo. There is a change of mood in the following alto recitative, which leads to a B minor alto aria, Christi Glieder, ach bedenket, with an elaborate solo violin obbligato. The final chorale, missing in the earliest source but included in the published text, is from a sixteenth-century hymn by Elisabeth Creutziger.

The chorale Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland is by Martin Luther, based on the fourth-century Advent hymn, Veni Redemptor gentium. The chorale itself is followed by a three-voice fugue, BWV 699, for organ, based on it and a more elaborate and extended derivative, BWV 659. The second, for organ manuals and pedals, forms part of the third part of the Clavier-Übung, published in Leipzig in 1739.

The cantata Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 61, written at Weimar in 1714 for the first Sunday of Advent, takes a text by Erdmann Neumeister, soon to move from Leipzig to the Jacobikirche in Hamburg as pastor. Neumeister wrote nine cycles of cantata texts and introduced into the form the operatic devices of recitative and da capo aria. The presence in the surviving autograph of notes by Bach on the order of service in Leipzig has led to the supposition that the cantata was first performed in Leipzig in 1714, or, as others maintain, at some later date, perhaps 1722. Scored for a string section with two violas and continuo, with four voices, the work opens with an A minor French overture, the chorale heard from voice after voice over the characteristic dotted rhythms of the form, followed by a fugal setting of des sich wundert alle Welt. The overture ends with a brief return to the dotted rhythms of the opening. A tenor recitative leads to the C major da capo tenor aria Komm, Jesu, komm, in 9/8 metre with violins and violas in unison in a two-part accompanying texture. The following bass recitative, setting words from the Book of Revelations, has a dramatic pizzicato accompaniment, reflecting the text. It is succeeded by a G major soprano aria accompanied by the cello and organ. The final Amen, from the chorale Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstem, allots the chorale melody to the soprano, with the three lower voices doubled by the violas and cello, while the violins add their own element of contrapuntal imitation.

Keith Anderson

Performing Bach Cantatas

The artistic choices on this recording are a reflection of the current debate on the performance style of the choral works of J. S. Bach. Perhaps one of the most interesting (and informed) discussions on the subject took place on the pages of the British magazine Early Music (November 1996-November 1998).

The argument was not a new one - some sixteen years had elapsed since the American musicologist Joshua Rifkin had revolutionized attitudes by recording Bach's B minor Mass with single instrumentalists and a small consort of eight singers. However the debate became intense as the English conductor Andrew Parrot sided with Rifkin. On the opposing camp stood the Dutch conductor Ton Koopman, whose new recording cycle of the cantatas prompted the debate, argued bravely on the merits and scholarship behind the use of the more standard chamber orchestra, chamber choir and solists.

On reflecting on the different points of view, Aradia has decided on the following principles:

1. From the surviving part-books it is apparent that Bach divided his singers into concertists or ripienists. The concertists part books had all the music-solos and ensemble, whereas the ripienists had only the ensemble music. Thus, a consort of singers where the soloists (concertists) sing throughout and are joined by the other singers (ripienists), is more in keeping with Bach's convention than the modem concept of soloist and choir. This is reflected in our performance of Cantata No. 61: Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland.

2. The ripieno group was often regarded as optional. Hence we have performed the Cantatas Nos. 36 Schwingt freudig euch empor and 132 Bereitet die Wege, bereitet die Bahn, with one singer to apart in the "Chorus" and chorale movements. Seen in the context of "chamber" music, with the other movements featuring solo singers, this seems a very appropriate choice.

3. We have followed the same principles in the choice of instrumentation. All the cantatas are performed with single strings.

This choice of performance style, must, in the end be a subjective one. But we hope that we can persuade the listener by the power of our performance, which has been in no way restricted by academic attitudes.

Kevin Mallon

Music Director, Aradia Ensemble



Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)

Cantatas Nos. 36, 132 and 61



 

Schwingt freudig euch empor, BWV 36

Ring out joyfully to the stars on high

 


 

[1]

1. Chorus

Schwingt freudig euch empar zu erhabnen Sternen, ihr Zungen, die ihr itzt in Zian fröhlich seid!

Doch haltet ein! Der Schall darf sich

nicht weit entfernen,

es naht sich selbst zu euch der Herr der Herrlichkeit.



Ring joyfully out to the stars on high,

you voices, be joyful in Sion!

Yet stay! The sound must

not go away,

the Lord of glory himself draws near you.


 

 


[2]

2. Aria (tenor)

Die Liebe zieht mit sanften Schritten

sein Treugeliebtes allgemach.

Gleich wie es eine Braut entzükket,

wenn sie den Bräutigam erblikket,

sa falgt ein Herz auch Jesu nach.

Die Liebe usw.

 

Love draws with gentle steps

his beloved by degrees.

As it delights a bride,

when she sees her bridegroom,

so a heart too follows after Jesus.

Love draws etc

 

 

 

 

[3]

3. Aria (bass)

Sei mir wil1kammen, werter Schatz,

die Lieb und Glaube macht dir Platz

vor dich in meinem Herzen rein,

zieh bei mir ein!

 

Welcome, beloved treasure,

love and faith make a place for you,

in my pure heart,

dwell then with me!


 

 

 

[4]

4. Aria (soprano)

Auch mil gedämpften, schwachen Stimmen

wird Gottes Majestät verehrt.

Drum schal1et nur der Geist dabei,

sa ist ihm salches ein Geschrei,

das ihr im Himmel selber hört.

Auch mil gedämpften usw

 

Even with hushed, weak voices,

shall God's majesty be honoured.

With them the spirit only rings out around

with such a cry

that he hears it in Heaven.

Even with hushed etc


 

 

 

[5]

5. Choral

Wie bin ich dach sa herzlich froh,

daß mein Schatz ist das A und O,

der Anfang und das Ende.

 

How deeply glad I am

that my beloved is Alpha and Omega,

the beginning and the end.


 

 

 

 

Er wird mich doch zu seinem Preis

aufnehmen in das Paradeis,

des klopf’ ich in die Hände.

He will redeem me, raise me up

to Paradise,

in whose hands I live.


 

 

 

 

Amen, amen,

komm du schöne Freudenkrone, bleib nicht lange!

Deiner wart'ich mit Verlangen.

Amen,

come, fair crown of joy, do not delay!


I await you with longing.


 

 

 

 

Bereitet die Wege, bereitet die Bahn!, BWV 132

Make ready the ways, make ready the path

 

 

 

[6]

1. Aria (soprano)

Bereitet die Wege, bereitet die Bahn!

Bereitet die Wege

und machet die Stege

im Glauben und Lieben

dem Höchsten ganz eben

Meßias kömmt an!

Bereitet die Wege, bereitet die Bahn! usw

 

Make ready the ways, make ready the path!

Make ready the ways

and make smooth the road

in faith and life

for the highest,

the Messiah comes!

Make ready etc


 

 

 

[7]

2. Recitativo (tenor)

Willst du dich Gottes Kind

und Christi Bruder nennen,

so müssen Herz und Mund

den Heiland frei bekennen!

Ja Mensch! dein ganzes Leben

muß von dem Glauben Zeugnis geben!

Soll Christi Wort und Lehre

auch durch dein Blut versiegelt sein,

so gib dich willig drein!

Denn dieses ist der Christen Kron und Ehre!

In des mein Herz bereite

noch heute

dem Herrn die Glaubensbahn,

und räume weg die Hügel und die Höhen

die ihm entgegen stehen!

Wälz ab die schweren Sündensteine,

nimm deinen Heiland an,

daß er mit dir im Glauben sich vereine.

 

If you will be called God's child,

Christ's brother,

your heart and mouth must freely

acknowledge the Saviour!

Yes, man, your whole life

must bear witness of faith.

The word and teaching of Christ

must also be sealed through your blood,

so willingly give yourself to that end.

For this is the crown and honour of Christians.

Then, my heart, make ready

even today

the path of faith for the Lord,

and clear away the rocks and hills

that stand in his way!

Roll aside the heavy stones of sin,

accept your Saviour,

that he may be united with you in faith.


 

 

 

[9]

3. Aria (bass)

Wer bist du? Frage dein Gewißen

da wirst du sander Heuchelei

ab du, a Mensch, falsch ader treu

dein rechtes Urteil hören müssen.

Wer bist du? Frage das Gesetze,

das wird dir sagen wer du bist,

ein Kind des Zorns in Satans Netze,

ein falsch und heuchlerischer Christ.

 

Who are you? Ask your conscience,

then you without deceit

O man, must hear, true or false,

a right judgement.

Who are you? Ask the law

that will tell you who you are:

a child of wrath in Satan's toils

a false and hypocritical Christian.


 

 

 

[9]

4. Recitativo (alto)

Ich will, mein Gatt, dir frei herausbekennen,

ich habe dich bisher nicht recht bekannt!

Ob Mund und Lippen gleich

dich Herr und Yater nennen,

hat sich mein Herz dach von dir abgewandt!

Ich habe dich verleugnet mit dem Leben!

Wie kannst du mir ein gutes Zeugnis geben?

Als. Jesu, mich dein Geist und Wasserbad

gereiniget van meiner Missetat,

hab'ich dir zwar stets feste Treu versprochen,

Ach! aber ach! der Taufbund ist gebrochen.

Die Untreu reuet mich!

Ach Gatt, erbarme dich!

Ach hilf, daß ich mit unverwandter

Treue den Gnadenbund im Glauben stets erneue.

 

I will, my God, freely acknowledge you,

I have hitherto not rightly known you.

Though mouth and lips both

call you Lord and Father,

yet my heart has strayed from you.

I have disowned you in my life.

How can you bear good witness for me?

Since, Jesus, your spirit and baptism,

have cleansed me of my misdeeds,

I have made certainly a firm promise to you,

ah! but ah! the bond of baptism is broken.

I repent of my falsehood.

Ah, God, have mercy on me.

Ah, help that I with unaltered loyalty

may ever renew the bond of grace in faith.


 

 

 

[10]

5. Aria (alto)

Christi Glieder, ach bedenket,

was der Heiland euch geschenket

durch der Taufe reines Bad!

Bei der Blut und Wasserquelle

wurden eure kleider helle,

die befleckt von Missetat.

Christus gab zum neuen kleide

raten Purpur, weiße Seide,

diese sind der Christen Staat.

 

You limbs of Christ! Ah think

what the Saviour has bestowed on you

through the pure water of baptism.

With blood and water

your clothes will shine bright

once stained with misdeeds.

Christ gave new clothes

red, purple and white silk,

these are the raiment of Christians.


 

 

 

[11]

6. Choral

Ertödt uns durch dein Güte

erweck uns durch dein Gnad,

den alten Menschen kränkte,

daß der neu leben mag

wohl hie auf dieser Erden

den Sinn und all Begehrden

und Gedanken hab'n zu dir.



Let us die through your goodness,

waken us through your grace.

Let the old man sicken

that the new may live

well on this earth,

with senses and all desires

and thoughts on you.


 

 

 

 

Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 61

Now come, Saviour of the peoples

 

 

 

[13]

1. Ouverture

Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland,

der Jungfrauen Kind erkannt,

des sich wundert alle Welt,

Gott solch Geburt ihm bestellt.

 

Now come, Saviour of the peoples,

the Virgin’s child,

the wonder of the whole world.

God decreed such a birth for him.


 

 

 

[14]

2. Recitativo (tenor)

Der Heiland ist gekommen,

hat unser armes Fleisch und Blut an sich genommen,

und nimmet uns zu Blutsverwandten an.

O allerhöchstes Gut, was hast du nicht an uns getan?

Was tust du nicht noch tiiglich an den Deinen?

Du kommst und läßt dein Licht

mit vollen Segen scheinen.

 

The Saviour is come

and has taken on himself our poor flesh and blood


and accepts us in his family.

O all-highest Goodness, what have you not done for us?

What do you not do daily for your own?


You come and let your light

shine in fullness.


 

 

 

[15]

3. Aria (tenor)

Komm, Jesu, komm zu deiner Kirche

und gib ein selig neues Jahr!

Befördre deines Namens Ehre,

erhalte die gesunde Lehre

und segne Kanzel und Altar!

Komm, Jesu, komm usw

 

Come, Jesus, come to your church

and grant a blessed new year.

Make greater the honour of your name,

Keep teaching sound

and pulpit and altar blessed!

Come, Jesus, come etc.


 

 

 

[16]

4. Recitativo (bass)

Siehe, ich stehe vor der Tür und klopfe an.

So jemand meine Stimme hören wird

und die Tür auftun, zu dem werde ich eingehen

und das Abendmahl mit ihm halten, und er mit mir.

 

See, I stand at the door and knock,

if anyone will hear my voice

and open the door to me,


I shall go in and sup with him and he with me.


 

 

 

[17]

5. Aria (soprano)

Öffne dich, mein ganzes Herze,

Jesus kömmt und ziehet ein.

Bin ich gleich nur Staub und Erde,

will er mich doch nicht verschmähn,

seine Lust an mir zu sehen,

daß ich seine Wohnung werde.

O wie selig werd'ich sein.

Öffne dich usw

 

Open, my whole heart,

Jesus comes and enters in.

I am only as dust and earth,

yet will he not disdain me,

his pleasure to see

that I become his dwelling.

Oh how blessed shall I be!

Open, my whole heart, etc


 

 

 

[18]

6. Amen (chorus)

Amen, amen, amen!

Komm, du schöne Freuenkrone,

bleib nicht lange!

Deiner wart'ich mit Verlangen.

 

Amen, amen, amen!

Come, fair crown of joy,

come and do not delay!

I await you with longing.


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