Alexander Kipnis, bass
The bass Alexander Kipnis was born in the Ukraine in 1891 and died in Westport, Connecticut, in 1978. After training at the Warsaw Conservatory and in Berlin, he made his operatic début in Hamburg in 1915 and continued his distinguished career in Berlin and then at the Vienna State Opera. He became an American citizen in 1931 and appeared with the Chicago Opera, making his Metropolitan Opera début only in 1940 as Gurnemanz. In Europe he appeared at Covent Garden in London, at Glyndebourne and in Salzburg.