|About this Recording
8.201001 - NATIONAL ANTHEMS OF THE WORLD (COMPLETE) (2013 Edition) (10-CD set)
COMPLETE NATIONAL ANTHEMS OF THE WORLD: 2013 EDITION
ORCHESTRATED BY PETER BREINER
When I started arranging and recording national anthems some 17 years ago, nobody expected the project would become so big and popular. In the meantime, it has been an important part of two Summer Olympics and numerous other sporting, cultural and social events. It’s hard to imagine the amount of time and work that has been invested into this endeavour, and it could not have been done without the incredible efforts and expertise of several anthem experts, all the musicians, but mainly without the extraordinary recording team that has been involved in this project from its beginning—sound engineer Otto Nopp and Ladislav Krajcovic.
This is an extraordinary project and any other existing anthem collection does not come close, in completeness, quality of the research or the size of the orchestral forces used. Every time this album is updated and released, the reactions are always overwhelming—from uncountable press articles and radio/TV shows all the way to special archbishops’ blessings. I hope this latest version, with its unprecedented number of anthems, will be no less appreciated.
National anthems tell the story of the country, its hopes, its dreams, its goals, its struggles and its history. To learn a country’s national anthem is to get a deeper knowledge of the country, and knowledge of other nations is the first step towards cooperation and understanding between peoples.
National anthems, as we know them today, started in Europe as praises to the ruler. In time, with European exploration and colonialism, this concept spread around the world to the point that every nation on earth now has a national anthem, despite there being absolutely no requirement to create one. National anthems are used to greet foreign dignitaries, to celebrate victory and achievements, and to rally citizens. In times of foreign occupation, national anthems have been used as a source of comfort and hope that their land will once again be free.
I first started studying national anthems in the early 1990s. The sources available for the study of national anthems (a study I have termed “anthematology”) were sparse at the time; writing to embassies and connecting with other anthematologists led me to delve deeper into this field, until I eventually created what is now www.nationalanthems.info to share what I have learned with the world. I would like to thank other anthematologists like Erwin Hoheisel and Zach Harden, as well as every single person who has contributed information for national anthems information to aid in the learning of other cultures. As well, I would like to thank Peter Briener for his passion for the music of the nations, and Jules Hammond and Klaus Heymann at Naxos Music for their supervision of this project.
I encourage the listeners of this CD set to visit www.nationalanthems.info to learn more about these short, but informational, windows into the countries of the world.
*The Slovak State Philharmonic, Košice plays on the following tracks: CD 1: Tracks 1, 3, 4, 8, 12, 43. CD 2: Tracks 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 17, 22, 44. CD 3: Tracks 19, 20, 23, 42, 43. CD 4: Tracks 4, 11. CD 5: Tracks 1, 2, 21, 23, 25, 33, 35, 36, 37, 45, 49, 50. CD 6: Tracks 19, 21, 35, 36, 38, 40, 45. CD 7: Tracks 4, 10, 21, 31, 42. CD 8: Tracks 4, 7, 14, 15, 22, 27, 42, 45. CD 9: Tracks 1, 6, 8, 17, 18, 19, 25, 40, 44, 48, 49. CD 10: Tracks 4, 36.
Note: The Olympic versions included in this set are versions shortened and approved by the IOC.
 ABKHAZIA: ”Aiaaira” [Victory]
The anthem of this separatist region of Georgia was written by the leader of one of the national parties, who is also a poet.
 ACADIA: “Ave Maris Stella” [Star of the Sea, We Hail Thee]
A Catholic hymn from at least the 8th century, it was approved as the anthem of predominately Catholic Acadia in 1884.
  AFGHANISTAN: “Milli Surood” [National Anthem]
The Afghanistan anthem, adopted with the new constitution in 2004, mentions several of the different nationalities in the country.
  AFGHANISTAN (FORMER ANTHEM): “Soroud-e-Melli” [National Anthem]
A Mujahedin battle song composed in 1919 was used as the new anthem and by the government in exile during the rule of the Taliban.
 AFGHANISTAN (FORMER ANTHEM): “Soroud-e-Melli [National Anthem]
This was Afghanistan’s anthem during the time of Communist rule of the country.
 AFRICAN UNION: “Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together”
The anthem of the OAU (predecessor of the AU) was selected as part of a contest in 1986, and was retained as the AU’s anthem in 2003.
 ÅLAND ISLANDS: “Ålänningens sång” [Song of the Ålanders]
The Åland islands are an autonomous part of Finland, yet they are Swedish speaking, and the anthem’s lyrics are in Swedish.
 ALBANIA: “Hymni i Flamurit” [Hymn to the Flag]
In use since 1912, the music of this anthem was written by a Romanian who also wrote the anthem used in Romania from 1977–1990.
   ALGERIA: “Kassaman” [We Pledge]
The lyrics, written while the author was in jail fighting for independence against the French, were put to music by an Egyptian.
  AMERICAN SAMOA: “Amerika Samoa”
“Amerika Samoa”, written in the Samoan language, functions as a local anthem for this American island territory in the South Pacific.
   AMERICAN VIRGIN ISLANDS: “Virgin Islands March”
The music style of this anthem resembles the patriotic marches in the style of John Philip Sousa, popular in the United States.
  ANDORRA: “El Gran Carlemany” [The Great Charlemagne]
Andorra’s history is presented in a first-person narrative style, with the speaker as Andorra personified, in its national anthem.
 ANGOLA: “Angola Avante” [Forward, Angola]
The anthem makes reference to important dates and events in the ruling party’s history; multiparty elections may change this in the future.
 ANGUILLA: “God Bless Anguilla”
Anguilla’s territorial anthem was adopted in 1981, around the time that it became a separate British colony.
 ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA: “Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee”
In use since 1967, the lyrics were slightly changed upon full independence in 1981.
  ARGENTINA: “Himno Nacional Argentino” [Argentine National Anthem]
After viewing a play that had a made-up anthem for Argentina in it, the lyricist of this piece decided to create a real anthem for Argentina.
 ARMENIA: “Mer Hayrenik”
The melody of the anthem dates from a 19th-century Turkish vocal exercise for singers.
 ARUBA: “Aruba Dush Tera” [Aruba Precious Country]
This Dutch colony adopted its anthem, which is in the style of a waltz, in 1986 as its territorial anthem.
  AUSTRALIA (National): “Advance Australia Fair”
Written in the late 19th century, it was composed when the author attended a concert on the world’s anthems and there was none for Australia.
 AUSTRALIA (Royal): “God Save the Queen”
When Australians voted to adopt a unique national anthem in 1984, the existing anthem, “God Save the Queen” was kept as the royal anthem.
  AUSTRIA: “Bundeshymne” [Federal Hymn]
This melody appears in some of Mozart’s work written for his Masonic lodge, but several scholars claim it was written by a different member.
  AZERBAIJAN: “Azerbaijan Marsi” [March of Azerbaijan]
When Azerbaijan became independent from the Soviet Union, it reinstated the anthem that was briefly in use before the Soviet takeover.
 AZORES: “Hino dos Açores” [Hymn of the Azores]
The anthem was written in the 1890s when autonomous movements were growing, and has been used continuously since then.
  BAHAMAS: “March on Bahamaland”
This anthem was the winning entry in a national competition for an anthem, and was adopted upon independence in 1973.
 BAHRAIN: “Bahrainona” [Our Bahrain]
Bahrain’s anthem is similar to others in the Arab region: short, and essentially consisting of a fanfare and flourish.
 BANGLADESH: “Amar Shonar Bangla” [My Golden Bengal]
A work of Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore was selected as the Bangladesh anthem; India used a different piece also by Tagore.
  BARBADOS (National): Barbados National Anthem
The lyrics of this anthem were written by a USC music scholar; the composer of the music was partly blind at the time the anthem was written.
 BARBADOS (Royal): “God Save the Queen”
Barbados, like other Commonwealth countries, use “God Save the Queen” to honour the Queen as the head of state.
 BASHKORTOSTAN: “Başgortostan Respublikahynyň Däwlät himny” [National Anthem of the Republic of Bashkortostan]
A republic within Russia, the music is a piece called “The Republic”. Lyrics were written first in Bashkir, then later in Russian.
 BASQUE COUNTRY: “Eusko Abendaren Ereserkia” [Anthem of the Basque Ethnicity]
The music is an old folk tune which the lyrics (no longer officially used, the anthem is officially wordless) were written to be sung to.
 BAVARIA: “Für Bayern” [For Bavaria]
The melody of this anthem was written by a professor at the Munich Conservatorium and leader of the royal choir at the royal opera.
  BELARUS: “Dziaržaŭny himn Respubliki Biełaruś” [State Anthem of the Republic of Belarus]
The melody is the same as when Belarus was part of the Soviet Union; a decade after independence from the USSR, new lyrics were written.
 BELGIUM: “La Brabançonne” [The Song of Brabant]
Written in 1830 during the independence struggle against the Dutch, the original lyrics were in French; Dutch and German translations came later.
  BELIZE: “Land of the Free”
The anthem was written by a Belize citizen who was involved in movements encouraging Belizian identity and removing racial discrimination.
 BENIN: “L’Aube Nouvelle” [The Dawn of a New Day]
This anthem has been in use since independence in 1960 (as Dahomey), and retained when the name Benin was adopted for the country in 1975.
  BERMUDA (Local): “Hail to Bermuda”
“Hail to Bermuda” is Bermuda's local anthem, used in local events and at sporting events when competing against other British territories.
 BERMUDA (National): “God Save the Queen”
As a territory of the United Kingdom, the British national anthem is used as the official national anthem in Bermuda.
  BHUTAN: “Druk tsendhen” [The Thunder Dragon Kingdom]
The anthem is based on a local folksong that has choreography, making this possibly the only anthem based on a choreographical work.
 BOLIVIA: “Canción Patriótica” [Patriotic Song]
This anthem is similar to others in Central and South America in having a grand “epic” nature to the music. It was composed by an Italian.
 BONAIRE: “Tera di Solo y Suave Biento” [Land of the Sun and Soft Breeze]
Part of the Netherlands Antilles until its dissolution in 2010, this anthem was used as the anthem for the Netherlands Antilles from 1964–2000.
  BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: “Drž avna himna Bosne i Hercegovine” [The National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina]
Adopted in 1999 and written as a purely musical piece entitled “Intermecco”, lyrics were written in 2009 but remain unofficial.
 BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (FORMER ANTHEM): “Jedna si jedina” [You Are One and Only]
The melody was taken from a Bosnian folk song, the words written by a popular music singer. Many Bosniaks still use this as their anthem.
 BOTSWANA: “Fatshe leno la rona” [Our Land]
The lyrics and music were both written by Kgalemang Tumedisco Motsete and was adopted upon independence in 1966.
   BRAZIL: “Hino Nacional Brasilerio” [Brazilian National Anthem]
First performed in 1831 during the imperial era, words were finally adopted for it in 1922, after several years of individual states using their own words.
 BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY: “God Save the Queen”
Containing Diego Garcia, a US Naval base, the archipelago is under the sovereignty of the UK, and officially uses their anthem.
 BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS: “God Save the Queen”
This UK territory uses the British anthem as its official national anthem; a local this edition of the National Anthems collection.
 BRUNEI : “Allah Peliharakan Sultan” [God Bless His Majesty]
The anthem was written in 1947, almost 40 years before independence, when a group of youths decided Brunei should have a national anthem.
  BULGARIA: “Mila Rodino” [Dear Homeland]
A Bulgarian student wrote and composed the anthem in 1885 as he went off to serve in the Serbo-Bulgarian War.
  BURKINA FASO: “Le Ditanye” [Anthem of the Victory]
President Thomas Sankara, who was an enthusiastic guitarist in a jazz band, wrote the lyrics, and probably the music of the anthem.
  BURUNDI: “Burundi Bwâcu” [Our Beloved Burundi]
The lyrics were written collectively by a group led by Jean-Baptiste Ntahokaja, a Catholic priest. The music is by Marc Barengayabo.
  CAMBODIA: “Nokoreach” [Royal Kingdom]
As the anthem associated with the monarchy, it was in use until the monarchy was deposed in 1970, and restored upon its return in 1993.
 CAMEROON: “Ô Cameroun, Berceau de nos Ancêstres” / “O Cameroon, Cradle of our Forefathers”
A French/English bilingual country, the lyrics are not a direct translation of each other, but are unique in each language.
   CANADA (National): “O Canada”
Composed in 1880 to an existing French-language poem, the English lyrics have undergone several revisions before official adoption in 1980.
 CANADA (Royal): “God Save the Queen”
Used as Canada’s official national anthem until 1980, it is used today to salute the royal family. French lyrics also exist for the tune.
 CANARY ISLANDS: “Himno de Canarias” [Anthem of the Canary Islands]
Adopted in 2003, the song is an adaptation of a local folk song called “Arrorró” [Lullaby]
  CAPE VERDE: “Cântico da Liberdade” [Song of Freedom]
For the first 20 years of independence, Cape Verde shared an anthem with Guinea-Bissau. In 1996, it adopted its own anthem.
 CATALONIA: “Els Segadors” [The Reapers]
The melody, composed in 1892,was adopted from a previously existing song. The lyrics recall The Reapers’ War, an important battle.
  CAYMAN ISLANDS (Local): “Beloved Isles Cayman”
A British colony, its local anthem was written by Leila Ross-Shier, a church organist, in 1930.
 CAYMAN ISLANDS (National): “God Save the Queen”
As a territory of the United Kingdom, the British national anthem is used as the official national anthem in the Cayman Islands.
 CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: “La Renaissance” [The Renaissance]
Composed by a French musicologist who went to the country to study the local music, he also composed the music for Senegal’s anthem.
 CHAD: “La Tchadienne”
Adopted upon independence in 1960, the lyrics were written by Chadian musician Louis Gidrol and his students at St. Paul’s School.
 CHECHEN REPUBLIC OF ICHKERIA: “Joƶalla ya marşo” [Death or Freedom]
Used by the separatist Chechen government in exile, the song was first written for the play “The Land of Our Fathers”.
 CHECHNYA: “Шатлакхан Илли” [The Shatlak’s Song]
Upon Russian control of the Chechen government, a contest was held for a new national anthem, the winning submission was adopted in 2004.
  CHILE: “Himno Nacional de Chile” [National Anthem of Chile]
The chorus from Chile’s first anthem (deemed too anti-Spanish) was retained for this new one, adopted in 1828.
 CHINA, PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF: “Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ” [The March of the Volunteers]
First written for the 1935 movie “Sons and Daughters in a Time of Storm”, it speaks of Chinese courage and bravery in the face of aggression.
 CHRISTMAS ISLAND: “Advance Australia Fair”
Christmas Island is a sparsely inhabited Australian territory, and uses the national anthem of its parent nation.
 COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS: “Advance Australia Fair”
The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are an Australian island territory in the Indian Ocean. It uses the anthem of Australia as its anthem.
  COLOMBIA: “Himno Nacional de la República de Colombia” [National Anthem of the Republic of Colombia]
Once the lyrics were written (by a Bogota comedian), he requested of his friend, an Italian opera teacher, to compose the anthem’s music.
  COMOROS: “Udzima wa ya Masiwa” [The Union of the Great Islands]
This is the Comoros’ second anthem, a different one having been in use from the 1975 independence to 1978.
 CONGO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE (Congo-Kinshasa): “Debout Congolaise” [Arise Congolese]
Restored after the country’s name reverted to Congo from Zaire, this is possibly the only anthem that has specific soloist and choral parts.
  CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE (Congo-Brazzaville): “La Congolaise”
The lyrics of the Congolese anthem, written for the occasion of independence in 1960, speak of the importance of national unity.
 COOK ISLANDS (Local): “Te Atua Mou E” [To God Almighty]
The composer of the music was Prime Minister at the time, and was married to the lyricist, a chief of one of the islands’ tribes.
 COOK ISLANDS (Royal): “God Save the Queen”
The Cook Islands have the British monarchy as their head of state and use the British royal anthem as their royal anthem.
 COSTA RICA: “Himno Nacional de Costa Rica” [Costa Rican National Anthem]
Costa Rica lacked an anthem until one was composed for the occasion of the US and UK accrediting their diplomatic representatives.
 CROATIA: “Lijepa naša domovino” [Our Beautiful Homeland]
The music, composed a few years after the lyrics, was based on “O sole piu ratto” from Donizetti’s opera “Lucia di Lammermoor”.
  CUBA: “La Bayamesa” [The Bayamo Song]
Composed in 1868 during an uprising against Spain, it was officially adopted in 1940 and retained even after the 1959 communist revolution.
  CURAÇAO: “Himno di Kòrsou” [Anthem of Curaçao]
Like Bonaire, Curaçao’s anthem was used for the anthem of the Netherlands Antilles as a whole until 1964.
 CYPRUS: “Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian” [Hymn to Freedom]
On independence, the Greek and Turkish leaders could not agree upon an anthem, so the Greek-led government decided to use the Greek anthem.
   CZECH REPUBLIC: “Kde domov můj?” [Where Is My Home?]
The music to the anthem was composed by a revivalist composer of Czech music and Czech opera; the lyrics from the opera “Fidlovačka”.
  DENMARK (National): “Der er et yndigt land” [There Is A Lovely Land]
On equal status with the royal anthem, it was first performed in 1844 for a large gathering of Danes, and quickly gained popularity.
 DENMARK (Royal): “Kong Christian stod ved højen mast” [King Christian stood by the lofty mast]
Dating back to 1780, “Kong Christian” is legally a co-national anthem, but is primarily used for honouring the King and the Danish military.
 DJIBOUTI: “Jabuuti” [Djibouti]
Adopted on 1977 independence and written in Somali, the lyrics describe the national flag
  DOMINICA: “Isle of Beauty, Isle of Splendour”
Adopted unofficially upon achieving statehood in 1967, the national song became the national anthem upon 1978 independence.
  DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: “Himno Nacional” [National Anthem]
The lyrics never refer to the country by its current name, instead using the name used by the original native inhabitants of the island.
  EAST TIMOR: “Pátria” [Fatherland]
The national anthem was first used during its brief period of independence in 1975, and was restored when independence was regained in 2002.
  ECUADOR: “Salve, Oh Patria!” [We Salute You, Our Homeland]
The lyrics were written in 1865, and the author later served as president of the Ecuadorean senate. It was set to music the following year.
  EGYPT: “Bilady, Bilady, Bilady” [My Homeland, My Homeland, My Homeland]
The composer of the anthem was a pioneer of Arabic music and a leader of the modern Egyptian renaissance in the early 20th century.
  EL SALVADOR: “Himno Nacional de El Salvador” [National Anthem of El Salvador]
Composed by an Italian serving as the director of an opera company, the anthem’s music consists of many parts.
 ENGLAND: “Land of Hope and Glory”
From Elgar’s “Pomp and Circumstance March No. 1 in D”, this is also used as an unofficial English anthem at sporting events.
  ENGLAND: “Jerusalem”
A popular hymn about Jesus visiting England as a youth, it’s often used as an unofficial anthem for England at sporting and patriotic events
  EQUATORIAL GUINEA:
The national anthem, adopted upon independence in 1968, speaks of the joy that the attainment of independence has brought.
 ERITREA: “Ertra, Ertra, Ertra” [Eritrea, Eritrea, Eritrea]
Eritrea’s anthem was adopted shortly after winning independence from Ethiopia in 1993 after a long war.
 ESTONIA: “Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja room” [My Native Land, My Pride and Joy]
The anthem, whose melody is nearly identical to Finland’s, was banned under Soviet rule, but could be heard in broadcasts from Finland.
  ETHIOPIA: “Whedefit Gesgeshi Woude Henate Ethopia” [March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia]
The current national anthem was adopted in 1992 after the fall of the Marxist regime that toppled the Ethiopian monarchy.
 EUROPEAN UNION: “European Anthem”
Adapted from Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony, commonly set to the poem “Ode to Joy”, the European Anthem lacks words officially.
 FALKLAND ISLANDS (Local): “Song of the Falklands”
A British teacher working on the islands wrote “Song of the Falklands” in the 1930s; it since gained popularity as an unofficial anthem.
 FALKLAND ISLANDS (National): “God Save the Queen”
Administered by the United Kingdom, the Falkland Islands uses the British anthem as its official national anthem.
  FAROE ISLANDS: “Mítt alfagra land” [My Fairest Land]
The lyrics of the anthem for this Danish territory were written in 1906 and the anthem as adopted in 1948.
 FIJI: “God Bless Fiji” / “Meda Dau Doka” [Let Us Show Pride]
The melody of the Fijian anthem was adopted from the hymn “Dwelling in Beulah Land”.
 FINLAND: “Maame” / “Vårt land” [Our Land]
First performed in 1848, the song has never been officially legislated as the national anthem, but has been used traditionally as such.
 FLANDERS: “De Vlaamse Leeuw” [The Flemish Lion]
The anthem, written in 1847, shows influences of German folk songs from the area. It was officially adopted in 1973.
 FRANCE: “La Marseillaise” [The Song of Marseille]
One of the most recognized and influential anthems in the world, it also has been used in other works, such as the “1812 Overture”.
 FRENCH GUIANA: “La Marseillaise” [The Song of Marseille]
Most French territories and departments, like French Guiana, do not have their own local anthem, but instead use France’s national anthem.
 FRENCH POLYNESIA (Local): “Ia Ora ‘O Tahiti Nui” [Long Live Tahiti Nui]
Written and composed by a group of seven people, they all agreed to give all royalties from the anthem to the French territory.
 FRENCH POLYNESIA (National): “La Marseillaise” [The Song of Marseille]
French Polynesia, being part of the French Republic, has the French anthem as its official national anthem in addition to its local anthem.
 FRENCH SOUTHERN AND ANTARCTIC LANDS: “La Marseillaise” [The Song of Marseille]
Consisting of nearly uninhabited islands and a slice of Antarctica, this French territory, like most others, uses the French anthem.
 FRISIA: “It Fryske Folksliet: [The Frisian Folksong]
The lyrics, written in the early 1800s, were paired with Heinrich Christian Schnoor’s “Vom hoh’n Olymp” to make the Frisian anthem.
  GABON: “La Concorde”
The composer of the anthem was actively involved in Gabonese politics and in the formation of labour unions.
 GAMBIA: “For The Gambia, Our Homeland”
The melody of this anthem was adapted from the traditional song “Foday Kaba Dumbuya”.
  GEORGIA: “Tavisupleba” [Liberty]
Adopted in 2004, the music was taken from two different Georgian operas, “Abselom da Eteri” and “Daisi”, both by Zakaria Paliashvili.
 GEORGIA (FORMER ANTHEM): “Dideba” [Praise]
First used in the short-lived pre-Soviet independence period, it was readopted after the fall of the Soviet Union.
 GERMANY: “Lied der Deutschen” [Song of the Germans]
The melody was composed by Haydn in 1797 as the Austrian imperial anthem, the text was written in 1841 before a united Germany emerged.
 GHANA: “God Bless Our Homeland Ghana”
Adopted on independence in 1957, the lyrics were changed in 1960 when a republic was declared, and in 1966, upon a change in government.
 GIBRALTAR: “Gibraltar Anthem”
The anthem was chosen as the local anthem of this British colony in 1994 as a result of a competition.
   GREAT BRITAIN: “God Save the Queen”
First performed in 1745, it has influenced many different national anthems and has been used in the compositions of 140 different composers.
 GREECE: “Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian” [Hymn to Freedom]
The anthem is taken from the first two stanzas of an epic 158-verse poem, set to music, inspired by the Greek Revolution of 1821.
 GREENLAND: “Nunarput utoqqarsuanngoravit” [Our Country, Who’s Become So Old]
Written and composed by two Danes, it was adopted in 1916 as the local anthem, well before autonomy within Denmark was granted in 1979.
 GRENADA: “Hail Grenada”
The national motto, “Ever Conscious of God We Aspire, Build and Advance as One People” appear in the lyrics.
 GUADELOUPE: “La Marseillaise” [The Song of Marseille]
Guadeloupe became an integral part of France in 1946, and does not have a local anthem of its own.
 GUAM: “Guam Hymn” / “Fanohge Chamoru” [Stand Ye Guamanians]
Guam’s local anthem, adopted in 1919, is always preceded by the American anthem on official occasions.
  GUATEMALA: “Himno Nacional de Guatemala” [National Anthem of Guatemala]
Written as the result of a competition, the author of the music was decorated with a gold medal for his contribution.
  GUERNSEY: “Sarnia Cherie” [Guernsey Dear]
Written in 1911 by a theatre manager, its popularity increased over the years, especially with expatriates.
 GUINEA: “Liberté” [Liberty]
The melody of Guinea’s anthem, adopted upon independence in 1958, was possibly based on an old folk tune.
  GUINEA-BISSAU: “Esta é Nossa Pátria Bem Amada” [This Is Our Beloved Country]
A Chinese musician offered to compose an anthem, using African music for inspiration. It was adopted upon independence.
 GUYANA: “Green Land of Guyana”
Chosen as the result of a competition one month before independence in 1966, the lyrics extol the nation’s natural beauty and its people.
 HAITI: “La Dessalinienne” [The Dessalines Song]
Selected on the occasion of Haiti’s centennial in 1904, the title honours the nation’s founder, Jean-Jacques Dessalines.
  HONDURAS: “Himno Nacional de Honduras” [National Anthem of Honduras]
The history of Honduras, from the arrival of Christopher Columbus to independence from Spain, is recalled in the complete lyrics.
 HONG KONG: “Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ” [The March of the Volunteers]
Hong Kong never had an anthem of its own; as a British colony it used the British anthem, and now as a region of China uses its anthem.
  HUNGARY: “Himnusz” [Hymn]
Written in 1823, the anthem is set in the 17th century when Hungary’s territory was divided between three nations.
  HUTT RIVER: “It’s A Hard Land”
The anthem of this micronation was commissioned by the nation’s founder of the Australian band The Foster Brothers after a TV appearance in
  ICELAND: “Lofsöngur” [Song of Praise]
The lyrics were written by a local pastor based on Psalm 90 as a celebration of the 1000th anniversary of the first Norse settlement.
 INDIA: “Jana-Gana-Mana” [Thou Art The Ruler of the Minds of All People]
The lyrics honour the various ethnic and cultural groups of India; the music is reminiscent of the style of music native to that country.
  INDONESIA: “Indonesia Raya” [Great Indonesia]
The song first appeared in 1928 as the song of the party working towards independence from the Dutch.
 IRAN: “Soroud-e Melli-e Jomhouri-e Eslami-e Iran” [National Anthem of the Islamic Republic of Iran]
The anthem was changed in 1990 upon the death of Ayatollah Khomeni; the new anthem was the result of a competition.
  IRAQ: “Mawtini” [My Homeland]
“Mawtini” is a popular song throughout the Arab world, and was a natural choice for a new anthem following the ousting of Saddam Hussein.
 IRAQ (FORMER ANTHEM): “Ardh Alforatain” [Land of Two Rivers]
The two rivers referenced in the song are the Tigris and Euphrates, the third verse praised Saddam Hussein’s party.
 IRELAND: “Amhrán na bhFiann” [The Soldier’s Song]
First appearing in 1912, only the chorus was adopted as the anthem in 1926. Originally in English, the more common Irish words came later.
 ISLE OF MAN: “Arrane Ashoonagh Dy Vannin” [Isle of Man National Anthem]
While the lyrics date from the early 20th century, the melody goes back to a traditional Manx melody from 1770 called “Mylecharaine’s March”
 ISRAEL: “Hatikvah” [The Hope]
The melody has a long history as a folk song of unknown origin, appearing in several European folk songs and religious music.
  ITALY: “Il Canto degli Italiani” [The Song of the Italians]
Adopted when Italy became a republic in 1947, it was written 100 years earlier, during the Italian struggle for unification.
 IVORY COAST: “L’Abidjanaise” [Song of Abidjan]
When the anthem was adopted in 1960, the capital was Abidjan, it has since moved to Yamoussoukro, but Abidjan remains the largest city.
 JAMAICA (National): “Jamaica, Land We Love”
The music and lyrics of the national anthem were created separately from each other; they were later combined to form the national anthem.
 JAMAICA (Royal): “God Save the Queen”
Since Queen Elizabeth is the head of state of Jamaica, the anthem “God Save the Queen” is used in Jamaica as the royal anthem.
 JAPAN: “Kimigayo” [His Majesty’s Reign]
The lyrics first appear in a collection of poems from the 10th century. The music reflects the musical chants in the imperial court.
 JERSEY: “Isle de Siez Nous” / “Island Home”
The music was inspired by the sounds of Jersey wildlife (the opening three notes, played two octaves lower, are the lowing of a Jersey cow)
 JERSEY: “Ma Normandie” (“My Normandy”)
Also used in the Normandy region of France, the anthem mentions Normandy and France and is written in French, but does not mention Jersey.
  JORDAN: “As-salam al-malaki alurdoni” [Long Live the King of Jordan]
Jordan has a short version of the anthem (heard on this disc) and a longer, “full” version for formal occasions.
 KAZAKHSTAN: “Meniñ Qazaqstanım” [My Kazakhstan]
Written in 1958 when Kazakhstan was part of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan’s first president modified the lyrics, making him a co-author.
 KAZAKHSTAN (FORMER ANTHEM): “Qazaqstan Respwblïkasınıñ Memlekettik Änuranı” [National Anthem of the Republic of Kazakhstan]
Upon independence, Kazakhstan continued use of the anthem used while part of the USSR, however new lyrics were written.
  KENYA: “Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu: [Oh God of All Creation]
The music of the anthem was based on a traditional Kenyan folk song, sung by mothers to their children.
  KIRIBATI: “Teirake kaini Kiribati” [Stand Up, Kiribati]
Written and composed by Urium Tamuera Ioteba, the lyrics are a plea to the people to love each other and promote happiness.
  NORTH KOREA: “Aegukka” [Patriotic Song]
Sharing a title with South Korea’s anthem, it praises the country rather than the Worker’s Party or any of the leaders.
  SOUTH KOREA: “Aegukga” [Patriotic Song]
Originally using the tune of the Scottish folk song “Auld Lang Syne”, new music was written in 1937 and adopted by the government in exile.
 KOSOVO: “Europe”
One of the few national anthems without lyrics, this may be to avoid favouritism to any one ethnic group. The title pays respect to the EU.
  KURDISTAN: “Ey Reqîb” (Hey Guard)
Several autonomous Kurdish groups have used the song as an anthem since the author was jailed in 1938 for his political beliefs.
 KUWAIT: “Al-Nasheed Al-Watani” [National Anthem]
Like Jordan, there is a formal “full” version of the anthem in addition to the short version heard here.
  KYRGYZSTAN: “Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Mamlekettik Gimni” [National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic]
Unlike other post-Soviet Central Asian nations, Kyrgyzstan adopted a new anthem on independence, reminiscent of local music.
 LAOS: “Pheng Xat Lao” [Hymn of the Lao People]
First adopted when the Kingdom of Laos was created in 1947, the lyrics were changed in 1975 after the communists deposed the monarchy.
 LAPLAND: “Sámi Soga Lávlla” / “Sää´msooǥǥ laul” / “Säämi suuvâ laavlâ” [Song of the Sami People]
The anthem of the Sami people (the inhabitants of Lapland), the author of the original poem was the first Sami in the Norwegian legislature.
  LATVIA: “Dievs, svētī Latviju!” [God Bless Latvia]
“Dievs, svētī Latviju!” was the first song to include the word “Latvia” in the lyrics, written as an act of defiance against Russia.
  LEBANON: [Lebanese National Anthem]
The composer of the anthem was trained in France and the music is a blend of Western and Eastern styles.
 LESOTHO: “Lesotho fatse la bo ntat’a rona” [Lesotho, Land of our Fathers]
The melody can be traced to a Swiss song called “Freiheit” [Freedom] from around 1823; a French missionary wrote the lyrics.
 LIBERIA: “All Hail, Liberia Hail!”
The words were adopted upon the nation’s founding in 1847, written by its third president; the music is from 1860.
  LIBYA: “Libya, Libya, Libya”
Upon the ouster of the Qaddafiregime, the new government restored the anthem first introduced upon independence.
 LIBYA (FORMER ANTHEM): “Allahu Akbar” [God Is Greatest]
Originally used as a battle song for the Egyptian army, the Egyptian origin was no longer mentioned in Libya after Egypt’s peace with Israel.
 LIECHTENSTEIN: “Oben am jungen Rhein” [High Above the Young Rhine]
The melody of “God Save the Queen” was popular in central European anthems in the mid 19th century; Liechtenstein retains it to this day.
  LITHUANIA: “Tautiška giesmė” [The National Song]
While Lithuania was still part of Czarist Russia, poet Vincas Kudirka wrote a 50 word poem on Lithuania and set it to music.
 LUXEMBOURG (National): “Ons Heemecht” [Our Motherland]
The anthem was first performed in 1864 in Ettelbruck, where the Alzette and Sauer rivers meet, these rivers are also mentioned in the anthem.
 LUXEMBOURG (Royal): “Wilhelmus”
Originating in a cavalry fanfare, it was first used as a royal anthem in 1919, when a royal wedding inspired lyrics honouring the royals.
 MACAU: “Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ” [The March of the Volunteers]
Until 1999, Macau was a Portuguese colony and used its national anthem, as a region of China it now uses the Chinese anthem.
  MACEDONIA: “Denes Nad Makedonija” [Today Over Macedonia]
Recalling a Macedonian rebellion in 1903, the anthem was used while in Yugoslavia and adopted by the Republic of Macedonia in 1991.
 MADAGASCAR: “Ry Tanindraza nay malala ô” [Oh, Our Beloved Fatherland]
The music, composed by a music teacher, was combined with lyrics by a local priest to create the anthem in 1959, a year before independence.
 MADEIRA: “Hino da Região Autónoma da Madeira” [Hymn of the Autonomous Region of Madeira]
Adopted in 1980, this autonomous region of Portugal has an anthem used for local representation.
“Oh God Bless Our Land of Malawi”
With official lyrics in both Chichewa and English, the anthem resembles other songs and anthems in southern Africa.
 MALAYSIA: “Negaraku” [My Country]
The anthem of the state of Perak was chosen as the anthem of Malaysia in 1957, the melody comes from a popular song in the Seychelles.
 MALDIVES: “Gaumee Salaam” [National Salute]
Originally using the tune of the Scottish folksong “Auld Lang Syne”, a new tune was created on the occasion of a visit from Queen Elizabeth.
  MALI: “Le Mali”
The music is based on an old folk tune, possibly dating from the Mali Empire of the 13th century.
 MALLORCA: “La Balanguera”
“La Balanguera”, an anthem for the entire Balearic Island chain, is based on an ancient Mallorcan children’s song.
  MALTA: “L-Innu Malti” [The Hymn of Malta]
The lyricist was inspired to write a national anthem in the form of a prayer to bind together the country with the commonality of prayer.
   MARSHALL ISLANDS: “Forever Marshall Islands”
The music and lyrics were written by the first president of the islands, who was formerly a school teacher and local chief.
 MARTINIQUE: “La Marseillaise” [The Song of Marseille]
As a department of France (situated in the Caribbean Sea), Martinique has no local anthem, and uses the French anthem for all occasions.
  MAURITANIA: [National Anthem of Mauritania]
The often-unused lyrics are from an 18th century poem on religious unity, the melody was originally used with the verses.
 MAURITIUS: “Motherland”
The lyrics were the result of a national competition; a member of the local police band then set the winning lyrics to music.
 MAYOTTE: “La Marseillaise” [The Song of Marseille]
Since 2011, Mayotte has been an integral part of France, and was the only Comoro island to remain under French rule.
 MEXICO: “Himno Nacional Mexicano” [National Anthem of Mexico]
Urged by his fiancée to submit lyrics in the national anthem contest, one of Mexico’s leading poets drew inspiration from Mexican history.
  MICRONESIA: “Patriots of Micronesia”
The tune is a German folk tune from 1820 known as “Gelübde”, it also appears in Mahler’s Third Symphony and Brahms’ “Festival Overture”.
 MICRONESIA (FORMER ANTHEM): “Preamble”
The lyrics of Micronesia’s first anthem were largely based on the preamble of the Micronesian constitution.
 MOLDOVA: “Limba noastră” [Our Tongue]
The anthem praises “our language”—the language is not named in the anthem. The Moldovan language is the same as the Romanian language.
 MONACO: “A Marcia de Muneghu” [The March of Monaco]
The anthem’s lyrics, written in 1931, are seldom heard; the piece is often performed instrumentally.
  MONGOLIA: “Mongol ulsyn töriin duulal” [National Anthem of Mongolia]
The music of Mongolia’s anthem has been in place since 1950 during Communist rule, but the lyrics have changed three times in that period.
   MONTENEGRO: “Oj, svijetla majska zoro“ [Oh, Bright Dawn of May]
Adopted when Montenegro became independent in 2004, the song was well known in the country as a folk song.
 MONTSERRAT (Local): “Montserrat My Country”
Chosen as the result of a 1995 contest for a national song, the use of the song has declined since a devastating 1997 volcanic eruption.
 MONTSERRAT (National): “God Save the Queen”
Several local patriotic songs exist in this British Caribbean island, but for official functions, the British national anthem is used.
  MOROCCO: “Hymne Chérifien” [Hymn of the Sharif]
Used during the time Morocco was a French protectorate, the music was kept upon 1956 independence, new lyrics were adopted in 1970.
 MOZAMBIQUE: “Pátria Amada” [Lovely Fatherland]
The anthem was adopted in 2002 to reflect the new multi-party democratic nature of the country.
 MOZAMBIQUE (FORMER ANTHEM): “Viva, Viva a FRELIMO” [Long Live FRELIMO]
The lyrics and title praise the political party that brought Mozambique its independence
  MYANMAR: “Kaba Ma Kyei” [Till the End of the World, Myanmar]
As per custom, singers of the anthem give a small bow upon the conclusion of their singing as a sign of respect.
 NAGORNO-KARABAKH: “Azat u ankakh Artsakh” [Free and Independent Artsakh]
An Armenian area within Azerbaijan, whose government is closely tied with Armenia’s, they use a different anthem for their nation.
 NAMIBIA: “Namibia, Land of the Brave”
After a contest was held to select a national anthem, the winner was the director of a Kalahari traditional music group.
 NAURU: “Nauru Bwiema” [Song of Nauru]
Nauru’s anthem was composed by an Australian squadron leader, and adopted when independence was attained from Australia in 1968.
 NEPAL: “Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka” [Hundreds of Flowers]
After the monarchy was deposed in 2006, the pro-monarchy anthem was replaced with a new one praising Nepal’s diversity.
 NEPAL (FORMER ANTHEM): “Ras Triya Gaan” [National Song]
Originally written as a salute to the king, it gradually became the main song of the country, in 1962 it was codified as the national anthem.
 NETHERLANDS: “Het Wilhelmus” [The William]
Known at least since the 16th century as a Huguenot melody titled “Charles”, the melody is one of the oldest anthem melodies.
   NETHERLANDS ANTILLES:
A group of Caribbean Dutch islands, each island also had its own anthem, which are now used after the Netherlands Antilles broke up in 2010.
 NEW CALEDONIA (Local): “Soyons unis, devenons frères” [Let us be united, Let us become brothers]
The words and melody of this anthem was composed by seven 10 to 13-year-old girls, members of a local choral group
 NEW CALEDONIA (National): “La Marseillaise” [The Song of Marseille]
Despite being one of the few French territories to have an official local anthem, “La Marseillaise” is still the national anthem.
 NEW ZEALAND (National): “God Defend New Zealand” / “Aotearoa”
The music for the existing poem was supposedly written in one sitting; a few years later, Māori lyrics were written.
 NEW ZEALAND (Royal): “God Save the Queen”
Legally a co-national anthem, it is usually only heard on occasions where the Queen or members of the Royal Family are present.
 NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR: “Ode to Newfoundland”
The “Ode to Newfoundland” was composed in 1902, while it was a British dominion. It retains the anthem as a province of Canada.
 NICARAGUA: “Salve a ti, Nicaragua” [Hail to Thee, Nicaragua]
The melody was originally an 18th century liturgical work from Spain, after a period of disuse; it was recreated from memory in 1910.
  NIGER: “La Nigérienne”
Like other African anthems of former French colonies, Niger’s lyrics speak of the country arising to progress in the future.
  NIGERIA: “Arise, O Compatriots”
After the words were selected as a combination of the best five entries in a contest, they were put to music by the Nigerian Police Band.
 NIUE: “Ko e Iki he Lagi” [The Lord in Heaven]
The lyrics of the anthem speak of “The Lord in Heaven” as Niue’s complete ruler.
 NORFOLK ISLAND (Local): “Come Ye Blessed”
Also known as the “Pitcairn Anthem”, it was probably brought by settlers from Pitcairn Island. The words are from a Biblical passage.
 NORFOLK ISLAND (Official): “Advance Australia Fair”
Norfolk Island is part of the Commonwealth of Australia, and uses the anthem of Australia as its official anthem.
 NORTH CYPRUS: “İstiklâl Marşı” [The March of Independence]
As the Greek-controlled Republic of Cyprus uses the Greek national anthem, the Turkish North Cyprus only uses the Turkish anthem.
 NORTHERN IRELAND: “A Londonderry Air”
“A Londonderry Air” is used by Northern Irish athletes at the Commonwealth Games; the melody is used for several Irish folk songs.
 NORTHERN MARIANAS: “Gi Talo Gi Halom Tasi” [In the Middle of the Sea] / “Satil Matawal Pacifico”
The melody of the local anthem of this commonwealth of the United States is taken from a 19th century German song.
 NORWAY (National): “Ja, vi elsker dette landet” [Yes, We Love This Country]
Composed by a friend of Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg, the anthem was first performed for the 50th anniversary of the constitution.
 NORWAY (Royal): “Kongesangen” [Royal Song]
The Norwegian royal anthem not only has the same melody as the British royal anthem, but also the Swedish royal anthem of the time.
  OLYMPIC MOVEMENT: “Olympiakós Ýmnos” [Olympic Hymn]
Composed for the first Olympics in 1896, local Olympic anthems were used until the 1960 Games, when the original anthem was resurrected.
  OMAN: “Nashid as-Salaam as-Sultani” [The Sultan’s Anthem]
Asked to write a salute to the sultan, the bandmaster of a visiting British ship came up with the melody that is now the national anthem.
 PAKISTAN: “Qaumī Tarāna” [National Anthem]
The composer was trained in both eastern music and western composition. The lyrics are in a Persianized form of the national language (Urdu).
  PALAU: “Belau rekid” [Our Palau]
Adopted in 1980, shortly before its first constitution was granted, the lyrics are a combination of works by several authors.
 PALESTINE: “Fida’i” [Revolutionary]
The title refers to one who is willing to fight for his homeland. The composer was an Egyptian maestro, and the author a Palestinian poet.
  PANAMA: “Himno Istemño” [Isthmus Hymn]
First sung on the streets when independence was attained from Colombia in 1903, the anthem salutes the nation and the working class.
  PAPUA NEW GUINEA:
Adopted upon 1975 independence, the anthem praises God and the freedom of the country.
  PARAGUAY: “Paraguayos, República o muerte!” [Paraguayans, The Republic or Death!]
The seven verses of the anthem recall Paraguay’s history, its national symbols, and end with a call to patriotism.
 PARALYMPIC MOVEMENT: “Hymn de l’Avenir” [Anthem of the Future]
An instrumental piece, the anthem was approved in March, 1996. Lyrics were written in 2001, but they don’t appear to have ever been used.
  PERU: “Himno Nacional del Perú” [National Anthem of Peru]
Despite a 1913 ruling that the anthem was not to be revised, it has been several times since, most recently the order of the verses.
 PHILIPPINES: “Lupang Hinirang” [Chosen Land]
The first official lyrics were in Spanish and later in English, but now only the Filipino lyrics written in 1948 must be performed.
 PITCAIRN ISLANDS (Local): “We From Pitcairn Island”
Using the tune of the hymn “The Royal Telephone”, this song is used at gatherings. The lyrics are addressing a departing visitor.
 PITCAIRN ISLANDS (National): “God Save the Queen”
Being a British territory, “God Save the Queen” is the official anthem, although it is rarely heard on the islands.
 POLAND: “Mazurek Dąbrowskiego” [Dabrowski’s Mazurka]
Fast-tempo mazurkas originated in and are often associated with Poland; this anthem inspired other Slavonic nations in Eastern Europe.
  PORTUGAL: “A Portugesa” [The Song of the Portuguese]
A common song of protest by the republicans in Portugal, it became the national anthem when they were successful in ousting the monarchy.
 PUERTO RICO: “La Borinqueña”
The music, first composed as a dance, was joined with words in 1868. Less “subversive” lyrics were written for government acceptance.
  QATAR: “Al-Salam Al-Amiri” [Peace be to the Emir]
The anthem was adopted in 1996, shortly after the accession of the current emir; the lyricist is of the same house as the emir.
 QATAR (FORMER ANTHEM):
Wordless and short in length, this format of anthem was typical of the Gulf States at the time. The music is possibly Indian in origin.
 QUÉBEC: “Gens du Pays” [People of the Country]
A popular folk song used by Québec sovereigntists as an anthem, the song (with modified lyrics) is also used in Québec as a birthday song.
  RÉUNION (Local): “P’tit fleur fanée” [Little Faded Flower]
Taught in schools in Réunion, “P’tit fleur fanée” was written in the local French Creole dialect by two local musicians.
 RÉUNION (National): “La Marseillaise” [The Song of Marseille]
A French department, and an integral part of France, the French national anthem is the official national anthem of Réunion.
 ROMANIA: “Deşteaptă-te române!” [Wake up, Romanian]
Frequently heard during the protests against Communist rule, the popular song of protest and freedom was adopted after the fall of Communism
   RUSSIA: “Gosudarstvenny Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii” [National Anthem of the Russian Federation]
The melody is identical to the old Soviet anthem; the new lyrics were written by the lyricist who wrote the lyrics for the USSR’s anthem.
 RUSSIA (FORMER ANTHEM): “Patrioticheskaya pesnya” [The Patriotic Song]
Criticism over the wordless nature of Glinka’s piece lead to words being written in late 1999, but were never adopted.
   RWANDA: “Rwanda nziza” [Rwanda, Our Beautiful Country]
After its bloody civil war, new national symbols were unveiled at the end of 2001, including a new anthem that speaks of love of country.
 RWANDA (FORMER ANTHEM): “Rwanda rwacu” [Our Rwanda]
Based on an old folk tune, it was composed by Michael Habarurema and “Abanyuramatwi”, a choral society in Gitrama.
 SAHARA: “Yā Banīy As-Saharā” [O Sons of the Sahara]
The POLISARIO, a group seeking independence for Moroccan-held Western Sahara, adopted this anthem upon their 1979 independence declaration.
 SAINT BARTHÉLEMY (Local): “L’Hymne à St. Barthélemy” [Hymn to St. Barthélemy]
Composed by Broadway composer Michael Valenti, the lyrics were commissioned by the island’s choir director to one of the choir members.
 SAINT BARTHÉLEMY (National): “La Marseillaise” [The Song of Marseille]
As a French territory, the French national anthem is the official national anthem of St. Bart’s and other French territories.
 SAINT HELENA, ASCENSION AND TRISTAN DA CUNHA (National): “God Save the Queen”
A British territory, “God Save theQueen” is the official anthem of St. Helena.
  SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS: “Oh Land of Beauty!”
Adopted in 1983, the anthem speaks of commitment to peace and unity.
 SAINT LUCIA: “Sons and Daughters of St. Lucia”
When St. Lucia became self-governing within the British Commonwealth in 1967, it adopted a national anthem, and retained it on full independence in 1979.
 SAINT MARTIN (National): “La Marseillaise” [The Song of Marseille]
Despite having a local anthem for use in local events, the French “La Marseillaise” is the official anthem for use in the territory.
 SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON: “La Marseillaise” [The Song of Marseille]
A French department off the coast of Newfoundland, the French anthem is used here as it is in the rest of France.
 SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES: “St. Vincent! Land So Beautiful”
Upon becoming a self-governing territory in 1967, St. Vincent adopted a local anthem. It was retained when full independence was granted in 1979.
  SAMOA: “O Ie Fu’a o Ie Sa’olotoga o Samoa” [The Banner of Freedom]
Honouring the national flag, the lyrics are sometimes slightly altered in a “religious version” that mentions God and Jesus.
  SAN MARINO:
San Marino’s anthem, adopted in 1894, is one of the few in the world with no lyrics (although unofficial ones exist).
 SÃO TOME AND PRINCIPE: “Independência total” [Total Independence]
The author of the lyrics held several government positions after the anthem was adopted on independence in 1975, mainly dealing with Culture
 SAUDI ARABIA: “Aash Al Maleek” [Long Live Our Beloved King]
An Egyptian composer was requested to compose Saudi Arabia’s first anthem in 1947. The current lyrics were written in 1984.
 SAUGEAIS: “Dé san qu’y a dèz hounnous â mondou” [Since Men Were In The World]
Saugeais’ “independence” being created at the whim of the mayor in 1947, the anthem is a song written in the local dialect in 1910.
 SCOTLAND: “Fhlùir na h-Alba” / “Flouer o Scotland” / “Flower of Scotland”
Written in 1965 by the folk group The Corries, it has been used as Scotland’s national song at several sporting events since 1974.
 SEALAND: “E Mare Libertas” [From the Sea, Freedom]
The wordless anthem of this occupied former British military base claimed as a nation was composed by London composer Basil Simonenko.
 SEBORGA: “La Speranza” [The Hope]
A town in northwest Italy, a local businessman found that the town was not in the Italian Unification Act, and proclaimed its independence.
  SENEGAL: “Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons” [Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons]
The composer also composed the anthem for the Central African Republic, the lyrics were by Senegal’s first president.
  SERBIA: “Bože pravde” [God of Justice]
Since its first appearance in an 1872 play, it has been associated as the anthem of Serbs even while Serbia was within Yugoslavia.
 SERBIA & MONTENEGRO (FORMER ANTHEM): “Hej Slaveni” [Hey, Slavs]
The Yugoslav anthem was retained for the federation of Serbia & Montenegro, despite the popularity of the two republics’ anthems.
 SEYCHELLES: “Koste Seselwa” [Seychellois Unite]
Adopted in 1996 after one-party socialist rule was replaced with a multi-party democratic system, the anthem speaks of unity.
 SIERRA LEONE: “High We Exalt Thee, Realm Of The Free”
The anthem’s composer was a director of the national broadcaster and the founder of the national dance troupe, the lyricist was a professor.
  SINGAPORE: “Majulah Singapura” [Onward Singapore]
Composed while Singapore was still a part of Malaysia, it was written as a theme for the city council’s functions.
 SINT EUSTATIUS: “Golden Rock”
The lyrics make reference to the fact that the first salute to the US flag was fired from Sint Eustatius.
 SLOVAKIA: “Nad Tatrou sa blýska” [Storm Over the Tatras]
The melody is taken from a Slovak folk song; the lyrics were by a student while on a protest over the firing of a nationalist teacher.
 SLOVENIA: “Zdravljica” [A Toast]
Written as a song praising wine (the lyrics even in the shape of a wineglass), the seventh stanza, praising peace, became the anthem in 1989
 SOLOMON ISLANDS: “God Save Our Solomon Islands”
Asking for God’s blessing on the south Pacific nation, it was adopted upon independence in 1978.
 SOMALIA: “Soomaaliyeey toosoo” [Somalia Wake Up]
Written in 1947, it has long been a popular Somali song, but was not adopted as the national anthem until 2000. Somalia adopted a new anthem in 2012; the melody was unavailable at press time for this edition of the National Anthems collection.
 SOMALIA (FORMER ANTHEM):
Having no lyrics, the melody was written by the same composer that wrote the party song for Benito Mussolini’s party.
 SOUTH AFRICA: “National Anthem of South Africa”
The music combines a popular African hymn with the previous national anthem; the lyrics use five different languages.
 SOUTH AFRICA (FORMER ANTHEM):
South Africa’s first anthem after free elections merely had the entirety of a popular African hymn preceding the entire former anthem.
 SOUTH GEORGIA AND SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS: “God Save the Queen”
A group of islands near Antarctica (populated only by a handful of scientists) that are owned by Great Britain, they use the British anthem.
  SOUTH OSSETIA: “Respublikæ Xussar Irystony Paddzaxadon Gimn” [The National Anthem of South Ossetia]
A separatist region of Georgia, the music was composed by a member of the Soviet composers while the region was in the USSR.
 SOUTH SUDAN: “South Sudan Oyee!” [South Sudan, Hurray!]
Chosen in a competition in early 2001 in preparation for independence later that year, the lyrics were revised many times before acceptance
 SOVEREIGN MILITARY ORDER OF MALTA: “Ave Crux Alba” [Hail, Thou White Cross]
The SMOM is a charitable Catholic organization with limited diplomatic status Its anthem speaks of the virtue of charity and piety.
  SPAIN: “Himno Nacional Español” [National Anthem of Spain]
First used in 1770 to honour the king, the melody’s origin is unknown and may be from outside Spain. The anthem is officially wordless.
  SRI LANKA: “Sri Lanka Matha” [Mother Sri Lanka]
Chosen as the result of a contest, it was first performed on the fourth anniversary of independence in 1952.
  SUDAN: “Nahnu Djundulla Djundulwatan” [We Are the Army of God and of Our Land]
Before independence in 1956, the anthem was the anthem of the Sudanese armed forces.
 SURINAME: “God zij met ons Suriname!” [God Be With Our Suriname]
The melody was first familiar to Surinamese as used in a popular Sunday School song, new lyrics in the native language were written in 1959.
 SVALBARD AND JAN MAYEN: “Ja, vi elsker dette landet” [Yes, We Love This Country]
These two sparsely populated island groups considered an integral part of Norway, are sometimes grouped together for statistical purposes.
 SWAZILAND: “Nkulunkulu Mnikati wetibusiso temaSwati” [Oh God, Bestower of the Blessings of the Swazi]
Composed after extensive ethno-musicological fieldwork in Swaziland, the anthem blends Western and indigenous music styles.
  SWEDEN (National): “Sång till Norden” [Song of the North]
Using a melody of a local folk tune, the words reflect the ideas of the “pan-Scandinavian” movement, popular at the time it was written.
 SWEDEN (Royal): “Kungssången” [Royal Song]
The anthem was first sung at a party to celebrate the accession of Oscar I and was used as the national and royal anthem until 1893.
 SWITZERLAND: “Schweizerpsalm” / “Cantique suisse” / “Salmo svizzero” / “Psalm svizzer” [Swiss Psalm]
The Swiss Psalm was chosen as the national anthem due to its Swiss origins, it was a Swiss patriotic poem set to the tune of a Swiss hymn.
 SYRIA: “Ħumāt ad-Diyār” [Guardians of the Homeland]
Adopted as the national anthem in 1936, the composer of the music composed many other Arab folk songs in the region.
 TAIWAN (National): “Zhōnghuá Míngúo gúogē” [National Anthem of the Republic of China]
The text of the anthem was taken from a speech given by Sun Yat Sen in 1928, it was retained when the republic’s government fled to Taiwan.
 TAIWAN (Alternate): “Zhōnghuá Míngúo Gúoqígē” [National Flag Anthem]
A patriotic song in Taiwan used at flag-raisings, it is used in international events where the national anthem is banned by mainland China.
 TAJIKISTAN: “Surudi milli” [National Anthem]
The melody was retained from the old anthem used as part of the Soviet Union, new words were written after independence.
  TANZANIA: “Mungu ibariki Afrika” [God Bless Africa]
Tanzania was the first African nation to use the popular African song “God Bless Africa” as its anthem, now used across southern Africa.
 TATARSTAN: [National Anthem of the Republic of Tatarstan]
After lacking words since it was adopted in 1993, words in Tatar and Russian were adopted by the Tatar State Council in February, 2013.
 THAILAND (National): “Phleng Chat Thai” [National Anthem of Thailand]
A local composer was asked to compose an anthem in the spirit of “La Marseillaise”; this anthem is now played twice daily in Thailand.
 THAILAND (Royal): “Phleng Sansasoen Phra Barami” [A Salute to the Monarch]
The music of the anthem was composed by a Russian musician specifically for lyrics written by Prince Narisara Nuvadtivongs.
 TIBET: “bod rgyal khab chen po’I rgyal glu” [Tibetan Government National Anthem]
The melody of the anthem is a very old piece of Tibetan sacred music; the lyrics are by the Dali Lama’s tutor.
  TOGO: “Salut à toi, pays de nos aïeux” [Hail to Thee, Land of Our Forefathers]
Originally adopted on independence in 1960, it was replaced in 1979, and restored in 1992 when one-party rule was dropped.
 TOKELAU (National): “God Defend New Zealand”
As a territory of New Zealand, its anthem is used as Tokelau’s national anthem, the local anthem is used for local events in the territory.
 TONGA: “Ko e fasi ‘o e ‘Otu Tonga” [Song of the King of the Tonga Islands]
A prince of the Tongan royal family of the time wrote the lyrics of the anthem; the lyrics reflect the islands’ deep Christian beliefs.
  TRANSNISTRIA: “My slavim tjebja, Pridnestrov’je” [We Glorify You, Transnistria]
Composed by the son of the Soviet anthem composer, it was also entered in the Soviet anthem contest, but did not win.
 TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: “Forged From the Love of Liberty”
Originally an anthem of the West Indies Federation (Of which Trinidad was a part), Trinidad retained the anthem upon its dissolution.
 TUNISIA: “Humat Al Hima” [Defenders of the Homeland]
The music was composed by the same composer of the anthems of Libya and the UAE, the lyrics were by an Egyptian in the 1930s.
 TURKEY: “İstiklâl Marşı” [The March of Independence]
The lyrics were selected in a competition; the original music chosen for the piece was changed several years later to the current work.
 TURKMENISTAN: “Garaşsyz, Bitarap Türkmenistanyň” [Independent, Neutral Turkmenistan State Anthem]
The music and the lyrics of the anthem, which referenced its first president in the lyrics, were slightly changed in 2008 after his death.
  TURKMENISTAN (FORMER ANTHEM): “Garaşsyz, Bitarap Türkmenistanyň” [Independent, Neutral Turkmenistan State Anthem]
Composed by the same person who composed the former anthem (used while part of the USSR), the anthem references Turkmenistan’s neutrality.
 TURKMENISTAN (FORMER ANTHEM):
Originally the song used while Turkmenistan was a part of the USSR, it was finally replaced 6 years after independence.
 TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS (National): “God Save the Queen”
The Turks and Caicos Islands are a British colony that use the British anthem as the national anthem. A local anthem also exists for local events.
 TUVALU: “Tuvalu mo te Atua” [Tuvalu for the Almighty]
The anthem (whose title is also the national motto) was written to reflect the Christian faith of the islands and the author.
  UGANDA: “Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty!”
Written in one day in a “burst of inspiration” as an entry for a national contest, Uganda’s anthem is one of the shortest in the world.
  UKRAINE: “Sche ne vmerla Ukrainy” [Ukraine’s Glory Hasn’t Perished]
A patriotic song dating from the 19th century, it was officially made the anthem when Ukraine left the Soviet Union.
 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES: “Nashid al-watani al-imarati” [National Anthem of the UAE]
The anthem officially has no lyrics, however some commissioned by the minister of education are well-known in the country and are often sung.
 UNITED NATIONS: “Hymn to the United Nations”
The lyrics based on the preamble of the UN Charter, it is sometimes performed at special occasions, yet remains unofficial.
   UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (National): “The Star Spangled Banner”
A poem written during the war of 1812 was set to a tune written for a gentleman’s social club in England. It was made the anthem in 1931.
  UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (Presidential): “Hail to the Chief”
Sir Walter Scott’s poem “The Lady of the Lake” was set to music in 1810, part of this music was first associated with US presidents in 1815.
  URUGUAY: “Himno Nacional” [National Anthem of Uruguay]
The composer, a Hungarian who moved to Uruguay, was formerly a military bandmaster in Italy. With 105 bars, it’s the world’s longest anthem
   UZBEKISTAN: “O’zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi” [National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan]
Uzbekistan retained the anthem it used as a republic of the USSR after independence, only writing new lyrics.
  VANUATU: “Yumi, Yumi, Yumi” [We, We, We]
Praising the need to work together, the national anthem was made official when independence was attained in 1980.
 VATICAN CITY: “Inno e Marcia Pontificale” [Hymn and Pontifical March]
Written as a papal anthem by Charles Gounod, the Vatican states it is to be seen as a hymn for all Catholics, rather than a national anthem
  VENEZUELA: “Gloria al bravo pueblo” [Glory to the Brave Nation]
The anthem has been known since 1840 as the Venezuelan Marseilles, due to the similarity in theme to the French national anthem.
  VIETNAM: “Tiến quân ca” [The Song of the Marching Troops]
The anthem was written in 1944, during Vietnam’s independence struggle against the French, and used in all of Vietnam in 1976.
 WALES: “Hen wlad fy nhadau” [Land of my Fathers]
Written by a father and son in 1856, it became the first national anthem to be sung before a sporting event in 1905.
 WALLIS AND FUTUNA: “La Marseillaise” [The Song of Marseille]
Like most other French territories, only the French national anthem is used, no local anthem exists.
 WALLONIA: “Le Chant des Wallons” [The Song of the Walloons]
Written in the Walloon language (related to French) in 1900, the French lyrics were adopted in 1998, as French is more commonly spoken.
  YEMEN: “al-ǧumhūrīyâẗu l-muttaḥidâ” [United Republic]
When North and South Yemen merged in 1990, South Yemen’s anthem was adopted and given its present title.
 (FORMER) YUGOSLAVIA: “Hej Slaveni” [Hey, Slavs]
Inspired by (and nearly identical to) the Polish anthem, the tune, a popular Slavic song, was a natural choice for a union of Slavic states.
 ZAMBIA: “Lumbanyeni Zambia” / “Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free”
Like Tanzania, Zambia also uses the music of the African hymn “God Bless Africa”, but different lyrics, unique to Zambia, were written.
 ZANZIBAR (FORMER ANTHEM): “National March for the Sultan of Zanzibar”
Used as a salute to the Sultan while still a British protectorate, the music of this wordless anthem was a popular tune on the island.
  ZIMBABWE: “Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe” / “Sinudzai Mureza WeZimbabwe” / “Blessed Be The Land of Zimbabwe”
Replacing “God Bless Africa” in 1994 with a distinctly Zimbabwean work, the lyrics are by a leading poet and academic in Zimbabwe.
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