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8.550326 - SHOSTAKOVICH: Symphony No. 10
Dmitry Shostakovich (1906 - 1975)
Dmitry Shostakovich belonged to the first generation of Russian composers to reach maturity after the revolution of 1917. Born in w hat was then St. Petersburg in 1906, he studied the piano with his mother, a professional pianist and entered the Conservatory in his native city in 1919. There his teachers included Maximilian Steinberg, Rirnsky-Korsakov's son-in-law, while his father's ability to supply the Conservatory director Glazunov with vodka endeared him to the latter. Like Prokofiev, his senior by a few years, he studied as a pianist and as a composer, winning ac claim in 1926 for his graduation piece, the First Symphony, which was warmly welcomed both at home and abroad.
The first real difficulties that Shostakovich was to meet came with his opera Lady Macbeth of the Mtensk District, otherwise known under the title Katerina Ismailova. Based on a novella by Nikolay Leskov, the work won immediate success as a model of Soviet achievement, an opera that expressed the ideas implicit in the Revolution. In January 1936, two years after the first performance in Leningrad, Pravda launched an unexpected attack on the opera and its composer, apparently on the direct instruction of Stalin. This condemnation marked the victory of a populist element in Soviet musical circles. Composers were to avoid modernism in favour of a form of music directly intelligible to the people, expressive of the optimism of the Soviet regime.
Shostakovich wrote a fifth symphony that in some ways seemed to make up for his lapse, but felt from this time onwards the precariousness of his position. In 1948 Zhdanov, the commissar in charge of the Union of Soviet Composers, once again brought charges of formalism and modernism against Shostakovich and Prokofiev, criticism that Shostakovich accepted. The immediate result was a dichotomy in his work between the private and personal and music for public consumption.
The death of Stalin in 1953, on the same day as the unfortunate Prokofiev, brought some relaxation in the strict control of the arts that had proved possible once more in the post-war years. Shostakovich had been obliged to dedicate his Ninth Symphony in 1945 to Stalin, who was angry at its lack of patriotic triumphalism, with no chorus or soloists to praise the teacher and leader. The Tenth Symphony, written in 1953, was intended as the composer's own bitter celebration of Stalin's death, with the second movement scherzo a portrait of the defunct leader, conceived with all the pent-up feelings of resentment held in check during years of oppression. The work had a mixed reception. Abroad in Western Europe and in America it seemed to return Shostakovich from a political and patriotic ghetto to the international world of the symphony, while in Russia there were still influential musicians who found the work unrealistic and objected to its obvious pessimism. Its eventual more general acceptance even at home effectually widened the horizons of possible Soviet music.
The extended first movement opens with the lower strings announcing the first thematic strand from which the rest of the movement develops, with a further element added by the clarinet, and a third important element appearing later in the lower register of the flute, accompanied by violins and violas. From these materials the long opening movement grows. The scherzo is a portrait of Stalin, seen in no kindly light and the third derives its substance from two elements, the second of which is a musical cryptogram of the composer's name, the letters DSCH providing him, in German letter notation, with the figure D E fiat C B natural, which from now on makes its recurrent appearance in the composer's work. The poignant conclusion of the movement is followed by a finale that starts with all the intense feeling of Mahler. An oboe solo follows the initial ominous music of the lower strings, offering a lament, taken up by flute and bassoon. An Allegro lightens the mood, although tragedy, comedy and satire are juxtaposed in what follows, the first of these strengthened by the ever-recurrent figure that conceals the composer's name.
BRT Philharmonic Orchestra, Brussels
In 1978 the Radio Symphony Orchestra was dissolved and both the Flemish and the French Radio divisions set up their own symphony orchestras. The Flemish network soon had a new orchestra, the BRT Philharmonic, comprising some 90 musicians and Fernand Terby became its principal conductor from 1978 to 1988. Since 1988, Alexander Rahbari has been the principal conductor and musical director of the new BRT Philharmonic Orchestra.
Alexander Rahbari Alexander Rahbari was born in Iran in 1948 and was trained as a conductor at the Vienna Music Academy as a pupil of von Einem, Swarowsky and Oesterreicher. On his return to Iran he was appointed director of the Teheran Conservatory of Music and took a leading position in the cultural development of his country. In 1977 he moved to Europe, winning first prize in the Besancon International Conductors' Competition and the Geneva silver medal. In 1979 he was invited by Herbert von Karajan to conduct the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra and served as a von Karajan's assistant in Salzburg. Rahbari's subsequent career has been highly successful, with concerts throughout the world and engagements in leading opera-houses. He is guest conductor of the Czech Philharmonic Orchestra, with Giuseppe Sinopoli, and has conducted major orchestras throughout Europe, in Japan and In Canada. Alexander Rahbari is now a citizen of Austria.
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