|About this Recording
8.572842 - MOZART, W.A.: Symphonies Nos. 35, 36, 41 (arr. J.N. Hummel for flute, violin, cello and piano) (Grodd, Eichhorn, Rummel, Krüger)
Johann Nepomuk Hummel (1778–1837) • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791)
In 1786, at the age of eight, Hummel went to live and study with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in Vienna. During his two years as a lodger in the family’s apartment in the Domgasse, he would have listened many times to his teacher singing, humming and trying out the odd phrase from the music composed and performed during those years which included Mozart’s two operatic masterpieces Le nozze de Figaro and Don Giovanni. Upon leaving the Mozarts, Hummel began his own career as a virtuoso pianist with his first concert tour being surprisingly successful, lasting some four years. Touring with his father, Johannes Hummel, provided a means of developing and establishing his reputation to an extent unimaginable even to his well-travelled teacher. That touring should become such a major part of Hummel’s life was testament to his immense skill as a pianist. He was especially renowned for his breathtaking improvisations; in the middle of one performance, for example, the pealing of church bells resulted in a spontaneous harmonisation and an extempore fugue.
At the turn of the century improved road conditions and communication made visiting distant cities easier and touring more reliable (a happy occurrence for Hummel, as freelancing meant his income was not entirely reliant on the patronage of a single city or court.) Nevertheless, Hummel did manage to maintain several important court positions between touring schedules. His first permanent post was at the court of Prince Nikolaus Esterházy in Eisenstadt, Austria, in 1804, supporting the retiring Joseph Haydn. His responsibilities included conducting and composing, and during his tenure he wrote five Masses for the Esterházy family, including the Missa Solemnis for the wedding of Princess Leopoldina Esterházy in 1806 [Naxos 8.557193]. His position provided him with opportunities to conduct several Mozart operas, including Le nozze di Figaro sung in German for his début performance, Die Zauberflöte, Der Schauspieldirektor, and Die Entführung aus dem Serail. Despite his having been recommended for the position by Haydn himself, Hummel’s lack of diplomacy, combined with his disregard of dress codes, ‘loud and pushy’ manner and devotion to his own performing career meant his seven years at court were unhappy ones. The Prince even dismissed him after a particularly disastrous Christmas Day performance in 1808 but relented when Haydn asked for him to be reinstated. Some years later, having thrown a lavish and very expensive party in the Prince’s absence, Hummel was again sacked, this time without redress.
From 1811 Hummel established himself successfully as a freelance pianist, teacher and composer. His marriage to the opera singer Elisabeth Röckel two years later no doubt provided the incentive to regain full time employment in 1816, this time as Kapellmeister in Stuttgart, Germany. Sadly though, this post was to prove even more disastrous than his first. Hummel had come highly recommended to the court and was able to dictate his terms of employment, including a generous remuneration and being put in sole charge of music at the court. His first performance at Württemberg was conducting a popular opera and met with general approval. Unfortunately, King Friedrich, who had hired Hummel, died just one week later and his son Wilhelm was fond of neither music, nor Hummel. Baron Karl von Wächter, a rather incompetent and arrogant former music and theatre director, complained to the new King at every opportunity, ensuring the Kapellmeister faced obstacles at every turn. Hummel ended up continually fighting either for his salary or his wife’s reputation as a singer. In the end he asked to be released from his contract and, as it became clear he was intent on leaving regardless, the court dismissed him in 1818.
The following year Hummel finally settled at the Ducal Court at Weimar where he was appointed Kapellmeister and continued conducting and composing in this position until his death eighteen years later. Weimar was rich in artistic traditions, particularly art, poetry and music. One of the first appointments Archduke Carl August made to his privy council, after assuming the throne in 1775, was that of poet, artist and politician Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. The court theatre immediately became the central focus of city life and the addition of the new Hoftheater in 1791 ensured the predominance of music. Hummel’s dedication of his arrangement of the Prague Symphony [Naxos 8.572841] reads “This Symphony is respectfully dedicated to His Excellency Baron von Goethe, Minister of State to His Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Saxe Weimar by J.N. Hummel”. While in Weimar, Hummel was extremely busy conducting and composing, fulfilling his duties to the Duke, as well as participating in an array of musical activities that brought the court closer to the community. He instigated a series of benefit concerts (which continued after his death) for the widows and orphans of deceased court orchestra members, bringing much needed income to the families of these musicians. He also had the privilege of conducting many famous travelling musicians, including violin virtuoso Niccolò Paganini in a notable concert at the Hoftheater in 1829. Hummel died a wealthy and famous man, the last of the great Viennese line that embraced Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. His works fell into obscurity after his death, swept away by changes in musical fashion.
Hummel’s triumphs as a conductor, composer and virtuoso pianist did nothing to ease his feelings of obligation and reverence towards Mozart as he arranged his celebrated teacher’s most famous works. The commission of symphonic arrangements from J.R. Schultz in 1823 and 1824 were completed during his time as Kapellmeister at the Court of Weimar. Hummel cared deeply for these symphonies and his arrangements demonstrate a profound understanding of Mozart’s art. In a review of the London editions of these works, the critic states that Hummel “never bestowed upon any arrangement, not even his own compositions, so much care as upon these symphonies, and he says he did so out of a tribute of respect due to his immortal master.” That Hummel might have heard his ‘immortal master’ at the fortepiano writing some of these symphonies nearly four decades earlier underscores why these arrangements reverberate with such heartfelt appreciation and understanding. The arrangements were lucrative for Hummel, although pirated copies of his original manuscripts were always a threat. Hummel was suspicious of editions published on the continent. He wrote in a letter to a friend: “How come … you don’t find a single note from an honourable German publisher?” The editions for this recording were made using Hummel’s English publications from Chappell and Co (1823–4) for which J.R. Schultz acted as intermediary in London. While England and France had orderly statutes surrounding copyright, this was not the case in Germany, and the German editions of these works are thought to be pirated copies. Schultz, who was working as a musician in England at the time, asked that the arrangements make some changes to harmonies and extend or alter cadenzas to suit the ‘current market’. Hummel remained uncomfortable at the thought of tampering with his teacher’s works despite the gentle insistence of his friend and fellow composer Ignaz Moscheles. The arrangements for piano, flute, violin and cello saw Hummel give the lion’s share of melodies to the piano, with the other instruments frequently accompanying. They also enabled him to travel as a soloist and show off these popular pieces. Hummel subsequently arranged more than fifty works for piano, flute, violin and cello.
Hummel’s respect for Mozart’s compositions prevented him from varying a single harmony. He did, however, make many changes to accommodate contemporary tastes, as well as his virtuosity as a pianist. He changed the occasional rhythm to imitate effectively the intensity of orchestral colour, for example, string double stopping or full tutti crescendi. He also made numerous changes to articulations, modernising the dynamics in line with the tastes of the early Romantic period, and frequently used indications such as fortissimo, pianissimo, and sforzando (directions Mozart reserved for special moments only). Hummel also constantly inserted crescendos, a common device at the beginning of the nineteenth century but one not often found in Mozart’s original compositions. The use of ornamentation had also changed dramatically over the years. Hummel’s piano treatise asks for all trills to be executed from the note and not from the note above as was common in Mozart’s day. Hummel gave every movement (except for the finale of the ‘Haffner’ Symphony) a precise metronome marking and, at times, these markings ask for extremely fast tempi. It is not clear whether he conducted the symphonies at these speeds as early metronomes were not yet reliable. It is obvious, however, that these metronome markings are there to explain Hummel’s reading of his teacher’s works on the piano. All movements retain their original titles except one, the second movement of Symphony No. 36 ‘Linz’ which Hummel changed from Andante to Poco adagio. The metronome markings, dynamic changes and accents are all retained in the new edition used for this recording which intends to convey Hummel’s unique understanding of these symphonies whilst cleverly imprinting his own personality.
One noteworthy difference between Hummel’s arrangement of the Symphony No. 40 in G minor [Naxos 8.572841] and the original with which we are familiar concerns the inclusion of eight additional bars in the Andante. These eight bars have a fraught history due to confusion over Mozart’s original manuscript. They appear to have been written by Mozart at a later date but until recently it has been unclear what was intended. We know now that “the eight revised bars in the slow movement are not to be understood as an alternate version of the text but … as a replacement for the original.” (Eisen, 1997.) The replacement eight bars are included in the first Chappell and Co print, as well as in the edition used here.
Mozart in Linz
On 26 September 1762, the Mozart family arrived in Linz on a boat from Passau, together with Ernst Johann Graf von Herberstein, canon of Passau Cathedral. Wolfgang and Nannerl played a concert for the wife of the Upper Austrian high commissioner, Leopold Graf Schlick, and for Count Hieronymus Palffy of Vienna. They slept in the guesthouse Zur Dreifaltigkeit in Hofgasse and continued on by boat to Vienna three days after the concert. In 1767, at the age of eleven, Mozart again stayed a few days, whereas most of his later visits were only in transit on journeys to further destinations.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s most significant connection with Linz dates from the year 1783, when he and Constanze stayed there as guests of Count Johann Anton Thun-Hohenstein. It was then that he composed the Symphony in C major, K 425. Count Thun-Hohenstein organized a concert at the theatre in Linz on 4 November 1783, and Mozart wrote to his father that he had “not a single symphony with me, which is why I am writing a new one in a mad rush because it has to be ready by then”. In spite of that “mad rush”, this symphony is an innovative masterpiece, being his first symphony with an Adagio introduction. In 1785, he revised only minor phrasing and dynamic details. One of Mozart’s most popular works today, the glorious “Linz” Symphony carries the name of that city to the whole world.
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