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8.573133-34 - CAVALLINI, E.: 30 Capriccios / Duets Nos. 1-3 (Bulfone, Giani)
Ernesto Cavallini (1807–1874)
Ernesto Cavallini was born in Milan on 30 August 1807. At the age of nine he won a place at the Milan Conservatory, where he studied with Benedetto Carulli. He graduated in September 1824, and was appointed second clarinet alongside his former teacher at Milan’s Teatro Re where, in 1827, he also appeared several times as a soloist. That same year, he was highly praised for a performance of his Concerto in E flat major in one of the foyers of the Teatro alla Scala. He then took up a post at La Fenice in Venice and towards the end of the decade performed at La Scala several times as both soloist and orchestral musician.
Having served for a while as first clarinet of the band of Piedmont’s Grenadier Guards, he was appointed first clarinet of the La Scala orchestra (1831). Over the next two years, he gave many performances around Italy, alongside his violinist brother Eugenio, and flautist Giuseppe Rabboni. In 1839 he appeared to great acclaim in Venice, Trieste, Vienna, Bratislava and Budapest. Two years later he played in Milan with the virtuoso cellist Alfredo Piatti and, in Novara, gave a much-praised performance of his Variations on a theme of Mercadante, under the baton of Mercadante himself. Soon afterwards he played in Paris, where he was made a member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts.
In the wake of his Parisian success, Cavallini travelled to London and performed for the city’s Philharmonic Society. In 1844 he undertook a new concert tour, visiting Geneva, Paris and London. In Brussels he gave a private concert at the home of the composer Fétis, along with Piatti and other virtuoso colleagues. A year later he returned to London, giving a performance at the Theatre Royal which included a rendering of his Canto greco variato with the eminent violinist Vieuxtemps; that same year, back in Brussels, he directed an Italian opera company in a number of productions. In 1846 he returned to La Scala for a concert promoted by publishers Ricordi to celebrate the inauguration of a bust of Rossini at which he performed a work he had written especially for the occasion, the Capriccio ‘Fiori rossiniani’. Cavallini left Italy in 1851 on a long tour that took him to Spain, France, Belgium, Holland, Germany, Poland and, finally, Russia. He reached St Petersburg in 1854, where the Tsar appointed him soloist of the newly founded Imperial Theatre, a position which, among other things, gave him the opportunity to perform with the composer Glinka in Berlin. In June 1854 he also began teaching clarinet at the St Petersburg Conservatory.
In 1862 Cavallini took part in the première of Verdi’s La forza del destino, whose famous clarinet solo at the opening of Act Three had been written expressly for him by the great Italian composer. Three years later he returned to Milan to give some performances and in 1869, having been granted a pension by the Tsar, decided to return to Italy on a permanent basis. That same year, in Milan, he published a series of works he had written in Russia, including a number of vocal pieces with piano accompaniment (he had taught singing as well as clarinet while in St Petersburg). He continued his solo career thereafter in Milan, Florence and Naples and, in late 1871, taught clarinet for a brief period at the Milan Conservatory. Cavallini gave his final public concert at the Teatro Carcano in Milan in 1872. He died following a stroke on 7 January 1874.
Cavallini’s great technical and interpretative gifts are described in many press articles and reviews of the day. He was particularly praised for the beauty of his sound, and for his dazzling performances. As regards his personal style, we know that his staccato was notable for its soft tone and that he was a master of circular breathing. The music journals often reported the popularity of his concerts: in 1842 the Gazzetta Musicale di Milano declared: ‘Cavallini is the Paganini of the clarinet’. The Revue de Paris dubbed him ‘the best clarinettist in the universe’, while for L’Italia musicale, Cavallini was the ‘Liszt of the clarinet’.
It is worth noting that throughout almost his entire career, Cavallini played a six-key boxwood clarinet made in Milan in the early 1800s, and was sometimes criticised for the less than precise intonation of this obsolete instrument. In 1860, the Tsar decided that the imperial orchestras should adopt the French clarinet, and it was only at this point that Cavallini decided to order a new twelve-key instrument from the Milanese instrument-maker Piana.
Thirty Capriccios for Clarinet
Cavallini’s five collections of Capriccios, Opp 1–5, are unquestionably his most significant didactic works, and are still used in music schools around the world today. They cover everything from Paganini-esque virtuosity to opera-style cantabile writing, and push the performer to the limits of what was technically possible in the first half of the nineteenth century. The five collections were published at various different points during that period. Interestingly, the composer was to reuse many of his capriccio themes in other studies and concert pieces over the years.
The first six Capriccios, Op 1, dedicated to his pupil Cristoforo Ballabio, were issued in Milan by the publishers Bertuzzi in 1827, when Cavallini was still studying at the Milan Conservatory. The second collection, Op 2, was published ten years later, also in Milan, but by the Lucca company, and was dedicated to another of his pupils, Antonio Urio. Opp 3, 4 and 5 were all issued by Ricordi in 1840, dedicated to Benedetto Carulli, Cavallini’s brother Pompeo, and Prospero Barigozzi respectively. Decades later, in 1904, Ricordi published the full set of thirty capriccios in a single volume for the first time. Italian clarinettist Alamiro Giampieri’s later edition was also issued by Ricordi: in it the capriccios are presented in an entirely different sequence, apparently in order of increasing difficulty. Giampieri corrected a number of incongruities and typographical errors, as well as altering many of the dynamic and accent markings.
His remains the best-known edition; Italian conservatories still set five of Cavallini’s capriccios as mandatory exam pieces: Nos 3, 5, 14, 23 and 29 (Giampieri’s numbering). This recording, however, is primarily based on the 1904 Ricordi edition. I perform Capriccio No 2 (Op 2, No 5), for example, with gruppetto, and Andante, as in the original version, rather than following Giampieri’s Allegro brillante marking; similarly in No 14 (Op 3, No 4) I go by the articulation marks printed in the 1904 edition.
Three Duos for Clarinets
The three duets, of which this is the world première recording, were dedicated to Cavallini’s brother Pompeo, ‘Bandmaster of His Britannic Majesty’s 18th Regiment’, and published by Lucca in 1836. Cavallini composed another set of three duets, dedicated to Edward Berti, issued by Ricordi in 1845/46 and a set of Six Grand Duets dedicated to composer Saverio Mercadante and published by Ricordi in 1849.
All of these works were written for teaching purposes, and all are written in sonata form, rather different from the then fashionable operatic style, and are comparable to some of Alessandro Rolla’s stylised compositions. That said, the melodies, many of which recur, are clearly inspired by Italian bel canto vocal music.
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